Chapter 10 Need to Know Information
Chapter 10 Need to Know Information PSYC 3206-003
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Dinnsen on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3206-003 at East Carolina University taught by Gary J. Stainback in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Chapter 10 Need to Know 1. Self-Concept Development: - Young children’s self-concepts focus on physical attributes, possessions, and global descriptions. At around ages 7 or 8, children reach the third stage of self-concept development. Judgements about the self become more conscious, realistic, balanced, and comprehensive as children from representational systems. - REPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEMS: broad, inclusive, self- concepts that integrate various aspects of the self. - A child can see themselves as “smart” in one subject and “dumb” in another. They can compare their “real self” with their “ideal self”. 2. Erikson’s Developmental Stage/Crisis: - INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY: Erikson’s fourth stage of psychosocial development. There is an opportunity for growth represented by a sense of industry and a complementary risk represented by inferiority. - If a child is not able to obtain praise from an adult, or lack motivation or self-esteem, they might develop a sense of inferiority. - Developing a sense of industry involves learning how to work hard to achieve goals. 3. Emotional Growth and Prosocial Behavior: - As children get older, they are more aware of their own and other people’s feelings. They can better control their emotions and respond to others’ emotional distress. - By age 7 or 8, children are aware of shame and pride, and they have a clearer idea of the difference between guilt and shame. They also understand their conflicting emotions. - By middle childhood, children are aware of their culture’s rules for acceptable emotional expression. They learn what makes them angry, fearful, or sad and how other people react to displays of these emotions and they learn to behave accordingly. - EMOTIONAL SELF-REGULATION: effortful control of emotions, attention and behavior. - Children low in effortful control tend to become visibly angry or frustrated when interrupted or prevented from doing something they want to do. - Children high in effortful control can hide their emotions at inappropriate times. - Children tend to become more empathetic and more inclined to prosocial behavior in middle childhood. 4. After School Programs: - Generally have low enrollment, low child-staff ratios, and well-educated staff. - Children, especially boys, in after school programs with flexible programming, and a positive emotional climate tend to adjust better and do better in school. 5. Persistent Poverty- Effects: - About 22% of U.S. children up to age 17 lived in poverty in 2010. (39% of black children and 35% of Hispanic children) - Children with single mothers are nearly 5 times more likely to be poor than children living with married couples. - Poor children are more likely than other children to have emotional or behavioral problems. - Their cognitive potential and school performance suffer even more. - Parents who live in poverty are likely to become anxious, depressed, and irritable and thus may become less affectionate and less responsive to their children. They may discipline inconsistently, harshly, and arbitrarily. - Children tend to become depressed, have trouble getting along with others, lack self-confidence, develop behavioral and academic problems, and to engage in antisocial acts. - Effective parenting and family interventions can buffer children from the effects of poverty. 6. Adoptions: - 1.5 million U.S. children under the age of 18 lived with at least one adoptive parent and about 136,000 children are adopted annually. - An estimated 60% of legal adoptions are by stepparents or relatives, usually grandparents. - OPEN ADOPTIONS: when both parties share information or have direct contact with the child. - Challenges associated with adopting a child: integrating the adopted child into the family, explaining the adoption to the child, helping the child develop a healthy sense of self, and perhaps eventually helping the child find and contact the biological parents. - Few significant differences in adjustment between adopted and non-adopted children have been found. - About 17% of adoptions are transracial, most often involving white parents adopting an Asian or Latin American child. 7. Children’s Choice of Peers: - Groups form naturally among children who live near one another or go to school together and often consist of children of the same racial or ethnic origin and similar socioeconomic status. - Children who play together are usually close in age and of the same sex. - PREJUDICE: unfavorable attitudes toward outsiders, especially members of certain racial of ethnic groups. - POSITIVE NOMINATION: children can say who they like to play with, who they like the most, or who they think other kids like the most. - NEGATIVE NOMINATION: children they don’t like to play with, like the least, or think other kids don’t like. - SOCIOMETRIC POPULARITY: the tally that is composed of positive nominations, negative nominations, or no nominations. - SOCIOMETRIC POPULAR CHILDREN: children that receive many positive nominations and few negative nominations. Generally have good cognitive abilities, high achievers, good at solving social problems, are kind and help other children, and are assertive without being aggressive. - SOCIOMETRIC UNPOPULAR CHILDREN: They can be unpopular in two ways: rejected and receive a large number of negative nominations or neglected and receive few nominations of any kind. Some unpopular children are aggressive and others are hyperactive and withdrawn. They do not adapt well to new situations and are insensitive to other children’s feelings. - Children look for friends who are like them in age, sex, and interests. Friendships are associated with positive developmental outcomes. 8. Selman’s Stages of Friendship: - Stage 0: Momentary playmateship (ages 3 to 7) - On this undifferentiated level of friendship, children tend to think only about what they want from a relationship. Most very young children define their friends in terms of physical closeness and value them for material or physical attributes. “She lives on my street” or “He has power rangers” - Stage 1: One-way assistance (ages 4 to 9) – On this unilateral level, a “good friend” does what the child wants the friend to do. “She’s not my friend anymore because she wouldn’t go with me when I wanted her to.” - Stage 2: Two-way fair-weather cooperation (ages 6 to 12) – This reciprocal level overlaps stage 1. It involves give-and-take but still serves many separate self-interests, rather than the common interests of the two friends. “We are friends; we do things for each other” - Stage 3: Intimate, mutually shared relationships (ages 9 to 15) – On this mutual level, children view a friendship as an ongoing, systematic, committed relationship that incorporates more than doing things for each other. Friends become possessive and demand exclusivity. “It takes a long time to make a close friend, so you really feel bad if you find out that your friend is trying to make other friends too” - Stage 4: Autonomous interdependence (beginning at age 12) – In this interdependent stage, children respect friends’ needs for both dependency and autonomy. “a good friendship is a real commitment, a risk you have to take” 9. Aggression and Bullying: - Aggression declines and changes in form during the early school years. After age 6 or 7, children become less aggressive as they grow less egocentric, more empathetic, more cooperative, and better able to communicate. - INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION: aggression aimed at achieving an objective. *The hallmark of the preschool period* - HOSTILE AGGRESSION: aggression intended to hurt another person - HOSTILE ATTRIBUTIONAL BIAS: when people quickly conclude that others were acting with ill intent and are likely to strike out in retaliation or self-defense. - Media violence can lead to long-term aggressiveness. - Aggression becomes bullying when it is deliberately, persistently directed against a particular target. - Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional. - Bullying can be PROACTIVE: done to show dominance - Or REACTIVE: responding to a real or imagined attack. - CYBERBULLYING: posting negative comments or derogatory photos of the victim on a web site. - Physical bullying decreases with age but other bullying increases. - Bullies are often feared, dominant, respected, and even liked. - Children who have academic problems are more likely to be bullies than victims. 10. Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood: - Children with emotional problems are more likely to have conditions that affect their daily activities and cause them to miss school. - OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER (ODD)- a pattern of defiance, disobedience, and hostility toward adult authority figures lasting at least 6 months and going beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. Children with ODD constantly fight, argue, lose their temper, snatch things, blame others, and are angry and resentful. - CONDUCT DISORDER (CD) – a persistent, repetitive pattern, beginning at an early age, of aggressive, antisocial acts, such as truancy, setting fires, habitual lying, fighting, bullying, theft, vandalism, assaults, and drug and alcohol use. - Between 6 and 16 percent of boys and 2 and 9 percent of girls are diagnosed with clinical levels of externalizing behavior or conduct problems. - OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) – Children with this disorder may be obsessed by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images or impulses (often involving irrational fears); or may show compulsive behaviors, such as constant hand-washing; or both. - CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION – a disorder of mood that goes beyond normal, temporary sadness. Depression is estimated to occur in 2% of preschool children and up to 2.8% of children under the age of 13 years. 11. Resilient Children & Protective Factors: - RESILIENT CHILDREN – those who weather circumstances that might blight others, who maintain their composure and competence under challenge or threat, or who bounce back from traumatic events. - PROTECTIVE FACTORS: the two MOST important protective factors that help children and adolescents overcome stress and contribute to resilience are: good family relationships, and cognitive functioning. - Resilient children tend to have high IQs and to be good problem solvers, and their cognitive ability may help them cope with adversity, protect themselves, regulate their behavior, and learn from experience. - Other frequently cited protective factors include the following: the child’s temperament or personality, compensating experiences, and reduced risk. 12. School Phobia/Anxiety: - SCHOOL PHOBIA – an unrealistic fear of going to school - SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER – a condition involving excessive anxiety for at least 4 weeks concerning separation from home or from people to whom the child is attached. - SOCIAL PHOBIA OR SOCIAL ANXIETY – extreme fear and/or avoidance of social situations such as speaking in class of meeting an acquaintance on the street. - GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER – anxiety that is not focused on any specific part of the child’s life. These children worry about everything: school grades, storms, earthquakes, and hurting themselves on the playground.
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