Intro to Psych, week 8 notes
Intro to Psych, week 8 notes Psyc 2010
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Psych week 8 notes 2/29/2016-3/6/2016 Reinforcement Schedule - Fixed Ratio (FR) o PS rewarded after specific number of responses Ex) piecemeal payment schedule You get paid for each widget produced: that’s a fixed ratio. Ex) for extra lives in video games You collect 100 coins you get an extra life. - Variable Ratio (VR) o PS rewarded after a specific number of responses, Number of responses is variable (it’s an average) Ex) Slots in a casino Pull it once & win the jackpot Pull it 100 times & win the jackpot o It varies - Operant Conditioning; Reward schedule: o Different reward schedules result in different learning patterns of behavior. o Why is Variable Ratio (VR) most effective? Partial reinforcement effect If you’re rewarded every single time, you’ll notice the absence of reward If reward is variable, however, it is harder to identify the absence of reward. o Ex) training dog: you should start out with fixed ratio of 1 and once it starts to learn change to a variable ratio so that 1.) the dog doesn’t get fat and 2.) Extinction is less likely to occur Shaping - Some behaviors are too complex to expect the target to do randomly o Ex) telling a dog to get you a coke from the refrigerator, it can be taught through shaping to do so, but at first it will not understand you because dogs cannot communicate with humans. o Successive reinforcement of the desired behavior Ex) train a dog to turn in a circle Reward it for turning its head slightly, then up the standard and only reward it when it turns its head & shoulders. Keep upping the standard & rewarding until the dog turns completely in a circle. You’re reinforcing “close” behavior until it becomes the “desired” behavior. Is operant conditioning good for anything besides training dogs? - ABA: applied behavior analysis o Ex) Used to treat autism If they lack social skills, use ABA to train the behavior. Ex) if they’re bad at making eye contact, when they do make eye contact then you reward them & they’ll make eye contact more because they want the reward. o Ex) Child training programs Super nanny, usually they need to train the parents how to use operant conditioning. Use token economies Big rewards: if they do something correct & collect 10 stickers for good behaviors, they get 10 extra minutes of watching Tv time as the big reward. - Used to treat addiction o Ex) drug test patient once a week. 1 week they pass; they get 10$ 2 ndweek they pass, get 50$ 2 3 week they pass, get 100$ Each week the reward increases, but if they fail then they go back to square 1 and are only rewarded 10$ the next week (assuming they pass the next week) Observational Learning - Albert Bandura o Learning by observing others behaviors & their consequences. Bobo doll studies Children observe an adult play nice or abuse a bobo doll on tv. Then they’re left alone to play with a bobo doll. The child’s play will mimic the adult’s behavior that they had observed. Trial 2: Same set up as before, but with consequences. Watch adult rewarded for good behavior/ scolded for bad behavior/ no consequences. If adult was praised, child would mimic behavior, if adult was scolded they’d be less likely to mimic that behavior. - Learning aggression o Does violent television act as a social media? When young-imitation Modeling Ex) TMNT & little kids practicing their ninja kicks When older- change in knowledge structures Increase in aggressive thoughts. Memory no one has a photographic memory 3 - Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. o Ex) Give someone a list to look at & later ask what they remember. o Ex) Correctly recalling something, following a procedure, an automatic association—you can’t see someone’s memory but you can observe their behavior. 3 types of memory: Sensory, Working (short-term), Long-term o They’re related: sensory goes to working goes to long-term, and long-term can be brought back to working. - Sensory Memory o Very brief and fades quickly o Ex) when you receive sensory receptors unconsciously, that is being processed by your brain, but you don’t have to consciously think about it unless it is effecting you. Like say you’re burning your hand on the stove, it will become part of your working memory because you should remove your hand from the stove. o Iconic memory effect If you aren’t paying attention to something, but you still have the memory for it. Ex) flash 9 letters for 1 sec and see how many people can remember (on average they’ll remember 3 or 4) Ex) flash 9 letters in a 3x3 square for 1 sec & after the image disappears a tone plays (high, med., or low in pitch) & based on the tone that’s the row that you have to recite (high st pitch= 1 row, medium pitch=middle row, low pitch=bottom row) We use this in playing spot the difference pictures 4 o Echoic memory effect Auditory information, even if you weren’t directly listening to someone, you can probably repeat the last few words they said back. - Short Term/ Working Memory o Attention directed toward important info from sensory memory, longer than sensory memory can last 1 second- a few minutes. o Working memory is limited, it can only hold so much info. o You can only recall 7 (+/- 2) units of info. What is a unit of info? o Individual letters (you can remember 5-9) o Individual #s (you can remember 5-9) Ex) someone gives you a list of 20 #s to memorize in a short time, you’ll only be able to memorize 5-9 o Concepts as long as you understand them (formulas and such) you can remember 5-9 o Chunks you can remember 5-9 What is a chunk? It’s a meaningful piece of information Ex) OMG, LOL, CNN – these are all chunks because they mean more than the 3 letters that are there. *Study Tip 1*: Since information in chunks enhances memory, you should study with things in relation to another, as a process. 4 Components of Working Memory - Central Executive - Phonological Loop - Visuospatial Sketchpad - 5 These 4 components work together, under the main control of the Central Executive**** Central Executive: This is the boss of the working memory - Your attentional system, it filters information based on what is important o Ex) if you’re hungry & have been deprived of food – you’ll think of food. Also, you focus on things you’re deprived of. - Episodic buffer o Responsible for information about the self & episodes of your life. **** our brains are VERY selfish o The Cocktail Party Effect Ex) When you’re at a party and looking at/ talking to someone, the conversations around you become fuzzy. BUT if you look away and stop focusing on your conversation, you will hear where your focus is and the person you were talking to will start to sound fuzzy. *Study Tip 2*: self-reference effect: study & apply the material to your self. Ex) people given a list of words were asked how the words applied to themselves & later could remember a lot of the words. Where as another group of people were given the same words, but asked how they made the individual feel & later these people did not remember a lot of the words. - The Central Executive: Encodes information from the sensory system to long term memory - Phonological Loop 6 o Responsible for processing sound-based information (words, speech, numbers) Inner-voice talking to yourself as your read. We often misremember letters based on their sounds rather than their shape. Ex) D is confused with T and no O. ( if someone says Down you’re more likely to think they said Town than Own) Ex) people mix up Jacket & Packet instead of Jacket & Coat - Visuospatial Sketchpad o Responsible for visual & spatial material Ex) playing Tetris, you can rotate the shapes in your mind. - The storage capacity for the Phonological Loop is 7 (+/- 2) and for the Visuospatial Sketchpad it is 7(+/-2) as well because they are processed in different parts of the brain. - The Central Executive: Retrieves information from memory. o Long term memory Distinguishing from short term memory Serial Position Effect Primary effect: long term, immediate recall o When someone has you memorize a long list, the information at the beginning of the list is stored in long term, and the end of the list you remember with working memory but you probably forget the middle of the list because that is working memory as well. Recency effect: Short term memory (working memory), you don’t remember 7 the middle of the list, you remember the end of it. Fun fact: the long term memory storage capacity is limitless. - 3 steps to information processing o encoding o storage o retrieval problems with any step can screw up the whole process - automatic encoding o just like automatic processing o doesn’t require awareness o fast & efficient Day to day life: Ex) remembering what you had for lunch yesterday Movie lines – being repeatedly exposed Annoying song lyrics- passively exposed + it gets store *** lots of things slip by unnoticed - effortful encoding o just like conscious processing more detail just like conscious processing good for complex and novel info slower but durable & accessible - 2 possible processes o Rehearsal Repeatedly going over material Spacing effect: space out while studying o Elaboration Connecting material & relating it to other stuff you know Implicit Memory - Memories retrieve without awareness 8 - Procedural memory- remembering how to do things o You never forget how to ride a bike Explicit Memory - Memory retrieved with conscious effort Declarative Memory - Being able to explicitly recall information - Episodic: knowledge of facts, independent of knowledge of when you learned them. Prospective Memory - Remembering to do something in the future Memories are webs of associations - Schemas- a structure that allows us to draw info back up Long term memories are stored based on meaning - Memories are not pictures - More like computer storage - Binary code- 01000100101011 - Representational storage Depth of processing - The more you engage in elaboration & processing during encoding, the more meaning the memory will have, the better stored it is, and the more accurate it is. Different types of coding - Shallow processing- maintenance rehearsal o Ex) repeating the word apple until you memorize it - Deep processing- elaborative rehearsal o Ex) connect the word apple to snow white in order to remember it better - Deeper processing- associated w/ great brain activity o if you make numerous connects, then if one breaks you have others that still work 9 Retrieval - Getting info from LTM to STM/WM o Recall vs recognition - Recall: o Retrieval w/o answer option o Ex) name all 7 dwarves - Recognition o Multiple Choice Option o Ex) given a list of names pick out the 7 dwarves Memory can be primed - Retrieval Cues o Table: what comes to mind Food, Family, Chairs, etc. 10