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Gen Chemistry Chap 19 notes

by: Emmanuel Notetaker

Gen Chemistry Chap 19 notes 603613

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > Chemistry > 603613 > Gen Chemistry Chap 19 notes
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About this Document

These notes cover a little part of chapter 19
Gen Chem II
waddell, D
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emmanuel Notetaker on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 603613 at University of Cincinnati taught by waddell, D in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Gen Chem II in Chemistry at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Gen Chem Chap 19: Ionic Equilibria in Aqueous System What is a buffer solution? Two­compound solutes that resist change in pH when acid or base are  added. They maintain a narrow pH range. How many minimum components must an effective buffer  contain? Two: one for H+, other for OH­ What are the two main types of buffers? Weak acid + its conjugate base Weak base + its conjugate acid Write two balance net equations showing how a buffer composed  of nitrous acid and potassium nitrite works HNO2 + OH­ = H2O + NO2­ NO2­ + H+ = HNO2 Explain why a solution of sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid  is not a buffer solution HCl is a strong acid, buffers require weeklies Explain why a solution formed by mixing 100 ml of a 0.100 M acetic acid with 50 ml of 0.100 M sodium hydroxide solution will act as a  buffer solution HAc + OH­ = Ac­ +H2O Given concentrations results in 50% HAc and 50% Ac­ balanced buffer system Write the Handerson­Hasselbalch equation for a weak  acid/conjugate base buffer system PH =pKa + log [Conj base/weak acid] Write the Handerson­Hasselbalch equation for a weak base/  conjugate acid buffer system POH= pKb + log [conj acid/weak base] What law was the Henderson­Hasselbalch equation derived  from? Ans: Law of mass action What is the principle application for the Henderson­Hasselbalch  Equation? Buffer Solutions Equivalence point Theoretical point during titration when reaction reaches stoichiometric  completion End Point Experimental approximation of equivalence point when indicator  changes color Titration Carefully measured and controlled addition of one solution of known  concentration (STD) to another solution whose concentration is to be  determined with the amount it reacts What is a buffer capacity? Measure of capacity of buffer to resist changes in PH. Related to the  concentrations of the two components What is the effective range for most buffers? Why? Effective range is +/­ 1.0 pH unit from target PH. Reason: beyond  CB/WA ratios of 10/1 to 1/10 system won’t work What is a titration curve? Plot of change in pH vs. amount of base or acid added during the  titration Acid­base buffer  A solution that resists changes in pH when a small amount of either  strong acid or strong base is added Common­ion effect The shift in the position of an ionic equilibrium away from an ion  involved in the process that is caused by the addition or presence of that ion


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