World History II, Week 8 Notes
World History II, Week 8 Notes HIST 1020
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Victorian Society in the “Age of Progress” Cathedrals of consumption o Worship at the foot of mass production o Industry and the birth of the consumer o Harrod’s = world’s largest department store Account for people visiting the mass exhibition Massive and ornate (marble palace) Model for later department stores Emphasis on making a great experience Choice and selection (elaborate displays) o Handling merchandise 1898 mechanical staircase (escalator) Creation of store credit Victorian Values: Empire o The other values are based on/relate to this o Africa is in the center of the map Everyone wants pieces to expand their empire The “Scramble for Africa” (1860s-1914) o Resources Copper, cotton, rubber, tea, gold, diamonds Final frontier o European Rivalries Great Britain, Germany, France, Belgium Empire building o Secure Key Waterways Suez Canal (post-1869) Serve as water arteries; move people and goods around that part of the world rapidly o Civilizing Mission Africa as the ultimate “Dark Continent” “White Man’s burden Ultimate civilizing mission Tools of Empire o Quinine, Railroads, German Machine Gun, Steamboats o Great Britain has advantage Mastery of most of the tools o Expensive but helpful Construction of Suez Canal (1858-1869) o 11 years to excavate o 30000 workers o $300,000,000 (3X original budget) o Invitation from Egypt o Idea conceived by Sled Pasha Prince or master of Egypt Without this waterway goods and people travel overland Slow, tedious, dangerous Want to charge transit fee o Extremely costly project Need money to complete Great Britain says no France says yes and it is completed in 1869 with their help o Egypt overextended themselves Ask for bailout from France Now Great Britain is interested Jugular Vein of the British Empire o 1875: Great Britain acquires Egyptian shares in canal (4000000) o 1882: Britain acquires control of canal via military occupation Push France out Thinking about India Establish Indirect rule 70 years (1956) Cecil Rhodes o Willing to put own money in exchange for taxes o Feels he has the white man’s burden o Diamond mine: Kimberly, South Africa o Largest diamond mining company Debeers Was the wealthiest man in the world o Story about diamond in a necklace Famous Patiala Necklace Diamond = 234.65 Carats and 2 inches (diameter) Stolen and the diamond was never found o African Responses to European Imperial Instructions Egypt was more inviting and accommodating South Africa (Zulus) more resistant They would lose too much so they want to fight back o Transformation of Zulu Army Total: 40,000 troops Prepared to push back Great Britain didn’t expect to have to fight anyone King Shaka He is preparing the zulu people to be defensive and offensive Changes: o New military technologies / discipline Shorter stabbing spear Heavy cowhide shield Forced marches (50+ miles/day) Regular drills Encirclement tactics Circle the enemy on all sides Regiments (400 men each) o Army of 40000 highly trained/equipped soldiers o Secure 3 victories over the British Lose because have no guns o Anglo-Zulu War (1879) Cetshwayo kaMpande (1826-1884) Leader after Shaka Strong fight against the British but overall lose because of the guns the British have o Berlin Conference (1884-1885) Otto von Bismarck (ca. 1871) Calls for conversation about Africa How to slow down Great Britain Representatives from almost every European nation “Principle of Effective Occupation” New approach to empire building Formally divides Africa Must establish colonial administration with troops Must notify other European powers upon taking possession of an African territory o Africa 1914 = 90% European control Britain still has the most power The independent Ethiopia and Liberia Put up unexpected fight o Apostle of Cuban Independence Cuban known for their coffee, sugar, tobacco, and other natural resources Trying to break away from Spain An Island trying to take on an Empire Need help José Martí (1853-1895) He is against getting help from the US because he feels they won’t leave once they get there US has sense hesitation Fear that if Spain loses control, Great Britain can try to gain control Only 90 miles off coast of Florida o U.S.S. Maine Mysterious explosion in Havana, Cuba to a US ship stationed 1898 This is what drew the US into Cuba It doesn’t matter who/how the ship blew up they are now invested b/c US lives were lost 266 casualties o Spanish American War (April-August 1898) Short war for the US and long war for Cuba Teddy Rooselvelt and his rough riders Volunteer troops fight Spanish troops fight Cuba and US side win Debate about name b/c it leaves out Cuba which is one of the main countries involved Battle between 2 imperial nations from Cuban perspective “The Splendid Little War” US thinks there is no problem and very few casualties Cuba = somewhat degrading b/c this was about gaining their independence and being free US now has influence over Cuba o The Platt Amendment (1901-1934) Cuba has freedom from Spain but not U.S. Guantanamo Naval Base leased to U.S. Military foot on island Cuba may not enter into treaties with any other country other than U.S. Diplomatically control relations U.S. has right to intervene in Cuba “when deemed necessary” Exert control over them Seen as the price Cuba paid Never truly sovereign power End of Spain as Imperial power U.S. now has access to Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and they buy the Philippines The Great War: Origins and Experiences Setting the Sate: Locating the Players o Serbia, Bosnia Herzegovina (Sarajevo), Austria-Hungary, Russia, Germany, France, Great Britain, Belgium, Italy Know where they are located on the map o Spark comes from the Balkans Chaos, upheaval, situated between 3 empires (Ottoman, Austro Hungarian, and Russian) they were pulling to gain control Black Hand (1911-1917) o Serbian Group o Slogan = Unification or Death Wanted a unified Slavic state that was strong enough to hold off 3 empires Pan-Slavic Nationalism: Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Macedonians o ~1908 Austria Hungary annexed Bosnia Herzegovnia Threatened their dream of unification Didn’t have the military resources o Want to weaken them by cutting off the head of the empire o Plan to hire an assassin to kill the head of the empire Gavrilo Princip (1894-1918) Young man dying of Tuberculosis Understood that it was a suicide mission Plan to take cyanide and kill himself afterwards Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Sophie o Traveling to Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina – annexed in 1908 Wants to solidify relationship o Black Hand Plan Kill him during the parade. Travel along the route and the first person to see him throws a bomb in the open car Person does and he misses the car, tries to kill himself with cyanide afterwards but it doesn’t work so he tries to drown himself in the river but there isn’t enough water; he is arrested o Later at Schiller’s Deli Princip sees them pass outside the deli and he fires Shoots Ferdinand in the throat and Sophie in the abdomen Arrested in 1914and placed on trial Sentence to 20 years dies while serving Austria-Hungary (July 28) o Punish Serbia for assassination o Put down ethnic conflicts in Balkan region Pan Slavic is a threat o Secure black sea region Want to control access to Mediterranean Germany (August 1) o Challenge British preeminence Born of Berlin Conference o Secure black sea region for access to Mediterranean Russia (August 1) o Support Pan-Slavic Nationalism Against Austria-Hungary Want to gain influence in this region o Warm water port (St. Petersburg freezes in winter) o Secure black sea region for access to Mediterranean France (August 1) o Take back territory lost to Germany in Franco-Prussian War 1870 (Alsace-Lorraine) Great Britain (August 4) o Protect Belgium o Reign in Germany o Secure Mediterranean region Access to Suez Canal (India) Italy (April 26 1915) o Territory along Adriatic Sea o Treaty of London (1915) switch sides Alliances and World War o Triple Entente France, Great Britain, Russia, US (post-1917) o Triple Alliance Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy (switch 1915) The Schlieffen Plan o Germany’s plan to make the first move Worried about fighting a war on 2 fronts o Didn’t have the military capacity especially compared to Russia o Plan to take on France to neutralize the West and then focus on the East Plan XVII o France’s plan to invade Germany Poor Planning and Miscalculations o Germany: Schlieffen Plan Alfred von Schlieffen German troops will be able to move swiftly through Belgium (6 weeks to Paris) Russia will need 6 weeks to mobilize troops (takes 3) Great Britain will stay out of war Quick victory o France: Plan XVII Joseph Joffre Germany will not swing out too far west through Belgium “Napoleonic model” of combat (offensive strategy) will secure victory Elan vital (fighting spirit) will secure victory in spite of being outnumbered Quick victory o Poor Little Belgium Germany Didn’t expect Great Britain to come to aid They were honoring an old treaty for 1839 Belgian Guerrilla Tactics Scorched earth Destroy supply lines Fortify large towns Break open dikes to flood fields Had to reroute to get around fields Volunteer British Expeditionary Forces (BEF) join war August 9, 1914 o Red and Blue Uniforms France has a problem The uniforms are beautiful and represent national pride Highly visible in the age of smokeless powder = easy targets (liability) Battle of Frontier’s = 150000 French casualties in 5 days o Taxis of the Battle of the Marne (1914) Taxi drivers volunteer drive back to bring troops to protect capital First battle of WWI 600 taxis 6,000 troops (approx..) 2 million total French troops at Marne river BEF troops present as well Results Germany pushed back Psychological Victory (taxis) Western front established o Progress measured in yards Stalemate o New Technologies Huge impact on troops and civilian population Bombs total war New and no one expecting it o War of Attrition Best weapon is to wear down the other side Dig in Trench warfare
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