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by: owlenstar



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About this Document

These notes go over chapter 8, mitosis and stuff
General Biology
Dr Gage
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by owlenstar on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLB115 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Dr Gage in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.




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Date Created: 03/06/16
Chapter 8: DNA and RNA mothafuckaaaaaa DNA is encoded information that makes us hat we are as organisms and individuals. Understanding the relationship between DNA and RNA and proteins is the key to understanding genetics and biotechnology. Everyone in this room is affected by issues pertaining to genetics and biotechnology Review of nucleic acid structure DNA exists in the form of a helix if the dna is unraveled it looks like a ladder DNA is a chain of nucleotides in the shape of a ladder bases form the rungs the chains from complimentary matched strands a and t g and c RNA is the same as DNA except that: RNA uses ribose, not deoxyribose RNA uses uracil (U) not thymine (T) DNA Replication DNA replication is the process by which a cell produces a duplicate of it’s own DNA the DNA is unzipped by enzymes called helicases genetic language written with four letters, a, c, g, t The Central Dogma DNA is the language of the genetic blueprint the DNA language is transcribed into a working language (RNA) the RNA language is translated into protein language to make a functional protein DNA Strands If one strand is AACCGGTT then the other is TTGGCCAA If one strand is ACGTGTCA then the other is TGCACAGT If it’s RNA, there are no “T”s, there are “U”s Codons are groups of DNA (three bases) DNA and RNA stuff DNA and DNA A pairs with T T pairs with A G pairs with C C pairs with G DNA and RNA A pairs with U U pairs with A G pairs with C C pairs with G transcription is the synthesis of a messenger RNA (mRNA) from a DNA blueprint mRNA: messenger rRNA: ribosome (RNA + protein) DNA alterations: Change code = change function Mutagens damage DNA some viruses chemicals x rays Mitosis:Cell Replication Interphase, Mitosis, then Cytokinesis Cells divide to reproduce (produces an identical copy) To add cell number (growth) To add cells with specific functions (differentiation) Differentiation process of forming specialized cells with specialized functions may lead t the loss of cellular components may lead to the addition of cellular components Mitosis: Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase Cytokinesis (takes place in telophase) splitting of all the remaining cell contents between the two daughter cells but not always evenly


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