Popular in Lifespan Development: Child-Adult
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Psychosocial Development During the First 3 Years Ch6 Foundations of Psychosocial Development Personality the relatively consistent blend of emotions temperament thought and behavior that makes a person unique Psychosocial Development Personality intertwined with social relationships Emotions Subjective reactions to experience that are associated with psychological and behavioral changes Sadness joy and fear Person s characteristic pattern of emotional reactions is a basic element of personality Emotional expression varies by culture American culture stresses selfexpression self assertion and selfesteem First Signs of Emotion Easier to tell when a newborn is unhappy versus happy In the 1St month infants Get quiet at the sound of a human voice Get quiet when picked up May smile when playing patacake Become more responsive to people Smile coo reach out and eventually go to people Early emotions are indicators of development First Signs of Emotion Crying Crying is the most powerful way infants can communicate their needs Hunger Cry Rhythmic cry not always associated with hunger Angry Cry Variation of the rhythmic cry excess air is forced through the vocal cords Pain Cry Sudden onset of loud crying without preliminary moaning sometimes followed by breathholding Frustration Cry Two or three drawnout cries no prolonged breathholding By 5 months babies monitor their caregivers expression lf ignored they will cry harder then stop if their attempt for attention is unsuccessful Wi constantly picking up a crying baby spoil the infant No Rapid and sensitive responding to cries is associated with later social competence and positive adjustment First Signs of Emotion Smiling and Laughing Eariest smiles occur soon after birth Result of subcortical nervous system activity Frequently appear during REM sleep 1St month smiles are often elicited by highpitched tones when the infant is drowsy 2 d month babies smile more at visual stimuli like familiar faces Socia Smiling Newborns gaze at their parents and smile at them Signas positive participation in the relationship Laughter becomes more common between 4 and 12 months May signify the most intense positive emotion As babies get older they become more actively engaged in gleeful exchanges 6monthold may giggle in response to the mother appearing with a towel over her face 10monthold may laughingly try to put the towel back on her face if it falls off Reflects cognitive development Shows they know what to expect Displays awareness that they can make things happen Laughter also helps babies discharge tensionfear Anticipatory Smiling lnfant smiles at an object and then gazes at an adult while still smiling lncreases around 810 months One of the rst types of communication in which an infant refers to an object or experience Early smiles may predict later development Talking and engagement Form and timing of smiles changes with development When Do Emotions Appear Emotiona development is an orderly process lnfants show signs of contentment interest and distress soon after birth During the next 6 months these early states differentiate into true emotions J0y Surpnse Sadness Disgust Anger Fear Related to neurological maturation Self Conscious Emotions Embarrassment empathy and envy Depend on selfawareness SelfAwareness Realization that one s existence and functioning are separate from those of other people and things Emerges between 15 and 24 months Self Evaluative Emotions Pride shame and guilt Depend on both selfawareness and knowledge of socially accepted standards of behavior Evident around age 3 Temperament Characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to situations The how of behavior Affects the way children Approach and react to the outside world Regulate their mental emotional and behavioral functioning Relatively consistent and enduring The New York Longitudinal Study De ned three categories of temperament quotEasyquot Generally happy temperament regular biological rhythms and a readiness to accept new experiences 40 of children quotDifficultquot lrritabe temperament irregular biological rhythms and intense emotional responses 10 of children quotSowtoWarmUpquot Temperament is generally mild but may be hesitant about accepting new experiences 15 of children Developing Attachments Attachment Reciprocal enduring tie between two people especially between infant and caregiver each of whom contributes to the quality of the relationship Originally thought to be based on nourishment Actually based on contact comfort Harlow Studies 19505 Studying Patterns of Attachments Bowlby Pioneer in the study of bonding in animals Ainsworth Student of Bowlby Studied attachment in African babies in Uganda Strange Situation Laboratory technique used to study infant attachment Used with infants 1024 months old Secure Attachment lnfant cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves and actively seeks out the caregiver on hisher return 6075 of infants Avoidant Attachment lnfant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver and avoids contact on his or her return 1525 of infants Ambivaent Resistant Attachment lnfant becomes anxious before the caregiver leaves is extremely upset during his or her absence and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return 1015 of infants DisorganizedDisoriented Attachment lnfant after separation from the caregiver shows contradictory repetitious or misdirected behaviors upon their return Least secure 10 of lowrisk infants The Role of Temperament In a study of 612 month old infants and their families both maternal sensitivity and infant temperament in uenced attachment van den Boom 1989 1994 Examined how temperament and attachment were related lrritabe infants were much more likely to be insecurely attached Mothers of irritable infants who were given training in sensitivity were more likely to have securely attached infants The Emerging Sense of Self SelfConcept Sense of self Descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one s abilities and traits 3 months infants pay attention to their mirror image 49 months they show more interest in images of other than of themselves Conceptual selfawareness develops between 15 and 18 months SelfAwareness Studied by putting rouge on the noses of 624 month old infants and putting them in front of a mirror 75 of 18 month olds and all 24 month olds touched their own nose Babies younger than 15 months did not touch their own nose The Roots of Moral Development Socialization and lnternalization Sociaization Development of habits skills values and motives shared by responsible productive members of a society Compiance with parental expectations is the rst step lnternaization During socialization process by which children accept societal standards of conduct as their own Developing SelfRegulation SelfRegulation A child s independent control of behavior to conform to understood social expectations Foundation of socialization Links all domains of development physical cognitive emotional and social Affected by the quality of the relationship with caregivers Maternal sensitivity use of mental terms and support of the child s autonomous behavior are important in uences Siblings Pay a distinct role in socialization Sibling con ict can be a vehicle for understanding social relationships Lessons and skills learned from interactions with siblings generalize to relationships outside the home Babies also attach to older siblings Rivalry may be present but so is affection Secure attachment to parents means siblings are more likely to get along Sibling con ict increases dramatically after the younger child reaches 18 months Becomes more constructive as well Sociability with Nonsiblings During the rst few months infants look smile and coo at other babies 612 month increasingly smile at touch and babble to other babies 1 year pay less attention to other people 1 12 to almost 3 show growing interest in what other children do and an increasing understanding of how to deal with them Cooperative activity develops during the 2ml and 3ml years Con ict can also occur but has a purpose Helps children learn how to negotiate and solve disputes Some children are more sociable than others re ecting temperamental traits Also affected by experience Effects of Maternal Employment In 2007 more than half 551 of mothers of infants in their rst year of life as well as a majority 592 of women with children under age 3 were in the labor force Dramatic increase since 1975 How does early maternal employment affect children NICHD Negative effects on cognitive development at 15 months to 3 years Mother working 30 hours a week by 9th month Maternal sensitivity highquality home environment and highquality child care lessened these effects NLSY Negative cognitive and behavior outcomes at ages 38 Mothers working fulltime in 1St year Children in disadvantaged families showed fewer negative cognitive effects than those in advantaged families Early Child Care 113 billion children who are not yet in kindergarten have employed mothers More than 50 receive care from relatives 30 from grandparents 25 from fathers 8 from other relatives 3 from siblings More than 30 are in organized day care or preschools Nonrelative care averages 129 a week Affordability and quality of care are issues to consider Factors Having an Impact on Child Care lmpact of early child care may depend on type amount quality and stability of care Famiy income and age when entering child care may also matter By 9 months 50 of US infants are in some kind of regular nonparental child care 86 enter child care before 6 months More than 50 are in child care for more than 30 hours a week Temperament and gender may also have an effect Shy children experience greater stress lnsecurey attached children experience greater stress Boys are more vulnerable to stress in child care as well as outside of child care Quality of care Structural Characteristics Staff training Ratio of children to caregivers Process Characteristics Warmth sensitivity and responsiveness of caregivers Developmental appropriateness of activities Structural and process characteristics may be related The most important element of quality of care is the caregiver Stimulating interactions with responsive adults is crucial for early cognitive linguistic and psychosocial development Low staff turnover is also important Consistent caregiving helps develop trust and secure attachments May also protect against negative effects of long hours of care
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