Intro Zoology week 7 notes
Intro Zoology week 7 notes BIOL 1114, 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to zoology in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Physical and chemical barriers: Skin, mucus, eyes, stomach Resident microbes help prevent pathogens from colonizing Innate defenses: some white blood cells Macrophages, natural killer cells, basophils Antimicrobial proteins, fever, inflammation (innate) White blood cells participate in both innate defenses and adaptive immunity Macrophages monocytes consume pathogens and promote fever Natural killer cells lymphocytes destroy cancerous or virally infected cells Basophils induce inflammation Cytokines interferons “sound the alarm” secretes and binds to another cell that prepare other cells Interleukins “signaling” between WBCs Defense against multicellular organisms Eosinophils kills parasites WBCs that eat single celled organisms? monocytes and neutrophils WBCs that induce inflammation basophils (closely related mast cells) Instance where pricked or stabbed basophils released histamine, which dilates blood vessels, thus recruiting more WBCs. Histamine makes vessels more permeable platelettes and WBCs go to wound site and WBCs destroy invaders Too much histamine released allergic reaction How do WBCs know which cells to attack or protect? Antigens in cell membrane act as name tags Lymphocytes B cells, T cells(adaptive immune response), Natural killer cells (innate defense) T cells secrete a protein called perforin Autoimmune disease lymphocytes fail to recognize friendly antigens MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) cell surface proteins essential for acquired immunity 1. Autorecognition 2. Antigen “presenting” chaperones Adaptive immune responses B cells long distance killers (antibodies) T cells direct contact killers Both can target specific antigens NK cells cannot target specific antigens (innate defense) An antigen is recognized by an antibody—antigens bound by antibodies are “flagged for death” Antigen antibody generator Adaptive Immune response Lymphocytes T cells can be cytoToxic (mature in Thymus) B cells make antiBodies Both B and T cells have memories Clonal deletion @fetus Clonal selection @ infection Primary vs secondary response Which is stronger? Rhesus (Rh) factor: mother attacks fetus blood? Antigens=proteins Proteins=amino acids Amino acids=coded by DNA 2 types of adaptive immunity: Humoral: antibodies in the blood (B) Cellmediated: cellcell direct contact (T) Macrophages present the antigens to lymphocytes (B cells and T cells) Cytotoxic T cells seek and destroy cells that have been compromised Toxic chemicals will infiltrate cell and destroy it Humoral immunity begins with differentiation of B cells into plasma cells Plasma cells secrete antibodies, proteins that recognize specific antigens Antibodies: variable region changes to produce antibodies with different shapes to target different antigens determined by DNA sequence Passive vs active immunity: Passive one individual acquires antibodies from another individual; fetus acquires antibodies from mothers, dog bite victim receives injections, snakebite victim receives antivenom Active individual produces antibodies to an antigen Clonal deletion (before birth): B cells and T cells that react with selfantigens/proteins/molecules are destroyed Blood types: A, B, AB, O Rh= rhesus factor It is an antigen just like A or B O negative is universal donor Thanks to memory cells: secondary immune response is faster and stronger than the first Clonal selection when an adult chosen B cells multiply like crazy How do vaccines work? They jump start immunity contain antigens which produces memory B cells and memory cytotoxic T cells DNA Double helix strands formed together by hydrogen bonds Composed of Nucleotides Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil Thymine DNA only Uracil RNA only A, G, C in both DNA and RNA G partners with C T partners with A Difference between DNA and RNA Sugar DNA deoxyribose (H) and sugar RNA Ribose (OH) RNA generally single stranded, also contains Uracil rather than Thymine DNA is passed down generation to generation, encodes protein RNA helps make proteins and catalyzes some reactions Central Dogma: DNA RNA Protein Transcription and Translation A gene is a sequence of DNA that encodes a specific protein Chromosomes with multiple genes (DNA) + RNA copy of one gene + amino acids + ribosomes = protein Cookbook + recipe + ingredients + bowl = brownies (proteins) DNA pairs with RNA A to U C to G G to C T to A Transcription has 3 steps: initiation, elongation, termination RNA strand binds to DNA template strand Reads from 3’ to 5’, transcribes from 5’ to 3’ 1. After transcription, PolyA tail and mRNA cap are added to the RNA @ nucleus 2. Introns can be removed, splice together the exons 3. Mature RNA strand can leave the nucleus 4. RNA goes to ribosome for translation Protein synthesis requires a lot of energy Cells save energy by only producing needed proteins Protein synthesis is regulated through transcription Transcription can only occur if the correct transcription factors are present 7.19 Transcription factors bind to enhancers TATA binding protein binds to the promoter What % of our genome actually codes for proteins? ~1.5 % Transcription: TATA protein binds to promoter region Transcription factors bind to enhancers RNA polymerase binds to promoter mRNA is synthesized Terminator region ends mRNA synthesis 5’ cap and poly A TAIL added to mRNA Exons are spliced, introns removed mRNA exports out the nucleus A three nucleotide sequence = one amino acid Nucleic acids transcripted into nucleic acids translated to amino acids Lysine, Serine, and Valine Genetic code: mRNA codons correspond to amino acids AUG START codon methionine mRNA language is translated into polypeptide language Nucleic acid language is translated into amino acid language Multiple ribosomes attach to an mRNA molecule simultaneously DNA template strand codons mRNA anticodons tRNA Mutations: Substitution = nucleotide(s) changed Deletion= nucleotide(s) deleted Insertion = nucleotides(s) added Mutations change DNA, but they are not always harmful, beneficial can pass down generations
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