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Homeostasis and Cellular Respiration

by: jsmith22

Homeostasis and Cellular Respiration BIOL 11900

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Biology > BIOL 11900 > Homeostasis and Cellular Respiration

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About this Document

These notes cover homeostasis and Cellular respiration from 2/29- 3/4
Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies
Professor Rebecca Brady
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by jsmith22 on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 11900 at Ithaca College taught by Professor Rebecca Brady in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies in Biology at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
● Homeostasis  ○ Ability to self­regulate ­ create a constant internal environment  ○ Regulated internal environment  ○ Feedback Control­ regulates homeostasis  ■ Negative feedback­ response to stimulus causes the opposite, EX. feel  too warm= body turns the heater off  ○ Blood Sugar Regulation  ■ Regulated by the pancreas and liver  ● High Blood Sugar  ○ Beta cells of the pancreas release insulin into blood  ■ Insulin is a hormone  ■ Type 1 diabetes=body destroys pancreatic beta  cells  ○ Insulin makes body cells take up more glucose  ○ Insulin makes liver take and store glucose as glycogen  ○ Blood sugar levels decline  ● Low Blood Sugar  ○ Alpha Cells of pancreas release glucagon into blood  ■ Alpha cells can be affected by hypoglycemia   ○ Glucagon makes liver break down glycogen and release  glucose into the blood  ○ Glucagon activates a hunger response   ○ Blood Sugar levels rise  ● Cellular Respiration  ○ Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are reciprocal processes  ○ Occurs in the mitochondria and cytoplasm  ○ Cellular respiration depends on the flow of high energy electrons  ■ Sugar contains many high energy bonds  ■ Electron carriers (NAD+) shuttle high energy electrons between reactions  ● Loaded electron carriers­ NADH  ■ Electron transport chain harnesses energy released in redox reactions,  slowly   ● Makes it easier for energy to be harvested and used  ○ Substrate level phosphorylation transfers phosphate group from substrate to ADP   ○ Process  ■ Glycolysis  ■ Pyruvate Oxidation  ● Transported into mitochondrial matrix by coenzyme A  ● Releases one CO2 and loads 1 electron carrier per pyruvate  ● Carried away by acetyl CoA  ○ Gets rid of used up carbon in CO2  ■ Citric Acid Cycle  ● completes oxidation of acetyl­CoA  ● Expels the remaining carbon from the sugar molecule  ○ exhaled as CO2  ■ Electron Transport Chain  ● creates a proton gradient across the inner membrane   ○ Energy gradient is stored energy  ● ATP synthase uses the proton gradient to power ATP synthesis  ○ Forces ADP and free phosphate together with mechanical  force  ○ Turbine powered by movement of protons   ● Allosteric feedback regulates cellular respiration   ○ Products of cellular respiration inhibit respiration  ○ Excess AMP stimulates respiration   ■ Cells can use other biomolecules as energy sources   Process  Location  Inputs  Outputs  Glycolysis  Cytosol  Glucose, 2 ATP  2 Pyruvate, 4  ATP, 2 NADH  Pyruvate  Matrix  2 pyruvate,  2 CO2, 2 NADH,  Oxidation  Coenzyme A  2 Acetyl CoA  Citric Acid Cycle  Matrix  2 Acetyl­CoA  4 CO2, 6 NADH,  2 FADH2, 2 ATP  Electron  Inner Membrane  All Loaded  H+ gradient, H2O  Transport Chain  electron carriers,  O2  Chemiosmosis  Across inner  H+ gradient, Lots  Lots of ATP,  Membrane  of ADP and  28­32 per  Phosphates  glucose   ○  


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