Psychology Week 8 Notes
Psychology Week 8 Notes PSY 2301
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aneeqa Akhtar on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2301 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Noah Sasson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Behavioral Sciences at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Aneeqa Akhtar February 29 , 2016 Chapter 8: Thinking Continued Loftus Car Experiment: subjects were shown the same video of an accident between two cars. Some subjects were asked “How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” and others were asked “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” Different wording can affect the witnesses’ memories Their answers: o Smashed -> 41 mph o Collided -> 29 mph o Bumped -> 38 mph o Hit -> 34 mph Memories are constructive, not set in stone. They are constructed and reconstructed. They can be modified when retrieved. They are malleable and open to influence. False memories seem just as accurate as the true ones False Memories: The Power of Suggestion Children are most vulnerable to the malleability of memory -> “child witnesses/testimony” Sam Stone Study: a classroom of kids was told that a man named Sam Stone would come into the classroom and he was very clumsy. o Half of the kids were asked leading questions: “When Sam Stone came in, he broke a toy. Did he do that on purpose?” Asking leading questions caused most of the students to make stories up Suggestive comments can encourage children to make up details Repressed Memories: this area of repressed memories is a hotly contested debate 20-30% of psychotherapists have used hypnosis to recover repressed memories o The problem? It doesn’t work o They do recall more past events, but most are false o Hypnotized age-regressed adults asked to do a task for 4-year olds; they acted like what they thought a 4 year old would act like Childhood Amnesia: the inability to remember events that occurred during the first two or three years of life most of our earliest accurate memories are from when we were 3-4 years old cognitive explanations: o lack of sense of self o impoverished encoding o different ways of thinking about the world the mind of an infant is replaced with the mind of a child symbolic thought; thinking in language memory of sequences were taught to children 27-39 months of age, tested 6-12 months later o descriptions used verbal skills of time of encoding, not time of testing: “verbal memories frozen in time” Aneeqa Akhtar February 29 , 2016 Aneeqa Akhtar February 29 , 2016 Chapter 9: Memory Cognition: Mental activity associated with [processing and understanding information Cognitive psychology: the study of these mental activities o Concept formulation o Problem solving o Decision making The study of both logical and illogical thinking Concept: a mental grouping of items that share common properties Prototype: a “typical” member of a category, one that has most of the defining features of that category Schemas: mental representations that summarize knowledge about an item or a situation Person Schemas: we use personality categories to classify people (personality, dress style, tattoos) o These can lead us to infer properties that aren’t present (prejudice, stereotype) Place Schemas: o Dining in a restaurant: script, sit down, drinks are brought, order, food is served to us o Lecturer’s office Automaticity: activities we can do without conscious though Driving a car, washing hair, reading Stroop Effect: an example of automaticity causing problems Automatic nature of reading, Ex: trying to say the colors of words Problem-Solving Trial & Error o Identify problem: car won’t start o Gather information: is it out of gas? o Try a solution: not out of gas, dry off wires o Evaluate results: car starts Algorithm: logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem Heuristic: rule of thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently o Usually speedier than algorithms, but more error-prone o Sometimes we’re unaware of using heuristics o Shortcuts, throw out all of the YY combinations Representativeness Heuristic: judging something quickly based on how it represents, or matches, a particular prototype o May lead one to ignore other relevant information o Ex: every girls with an expensive handbag is interest in money Availability Heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory o If instances come readily to mine (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common Aneeqa Akhtar February 29 , 2016 o Ex: people believe crime has increased in the US (due to availability of information) Insight: sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem )the “aha” moment) Nine-Dot Problem: have to connect 9 dots with only4 lines o People do not realize that their lines can be drawn outside the box. Our mental set imposes non-specified rules Mental Set: tendency to approach a problem in a particular way o Usually, this way has been successful in the past But may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem…”fixed thinking” 3 Jugs Problem: have to combine 3 jugs to measure out 100oz of water o People focus on adding or subtracting two jugs o All of the problems can be solved by B-A-2C Matchstick Problem: form an equilateral triangle with 6 matchsticks o most people think in only 2D, have to do it 3D Functional Fixedness: tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions o Impediment to problem solving o Ex: matchbox, candle, bulletin board challenge Overconfident: tendency to be more confident than correct o People tend to be overconfident in the correctness of their answers Framing: the way an issue is posed o how an issue is frames can significantly affect decisions and judgements Anchoring: the tendency to use the initial value as a reference point in making a new numerical estimate o Ex: negotiating, menu pricing o Car sales: mention that its fuel efficient and clean before mentioning rust and mileage o Participants asked to calculate in 5 seconds the answer to one of the following problems: 1x2x3x4x5x6x7x8 8x7x6x5x4x3x2x1 They had a much smaller guess for the first list What influences our decision making> Choice Overload: too many choices can become overwhelming and make decision- making more stressful o Ex: jam tasting, easier to buy an item when there are less flavors to choose from’ Satisficing: to obtain an outcome that is good enough o Instead of spending the time and effort to obtains the ideal option ( as would an optimizer) o Ex: buying jeans or ketchup Aneeqa Akhtar March 2 , 2016 Chapter 10: Language Language: written or oral system of communication that uses symbols and has rules for their use Qualitatively different than other animal communication A primary way we communicate, but not the only way we communicate Differs from communication. Language is: o Symbolic: the sounds of spoken language or that hand movements of sign language represent something independent of actual sounds or movements o Grammatical: language has a system of rules that permits a speaker to produce and understand sentences that have never been uttered before o Morphology: structure of words, combinable meaning (-ed, means past) o Syntax: rules of phrase and sentence creation different languages can have different syntaxes Although all biologically-typical people acquire language, language is culture-specific. Intrinsically, all humans have a drive to learn language Phoneme: smallest distinctive sound unit in a language The unique sounds that can be joined to create words About 40 phonemes in English 26 letters; some make more than one phoneme (‘o‘ in hot and cold) At birth, infants can distinguish all contrasting phonemes in human language o By 4-5 months of age, they begin to babble native phonemes o After 9 months of age, they can only distinguish phenomes in language being spoken around them McGurk Effect: the mouth makes the shape of a phenome that is not being said Morphemes: the smallest unit of meaning May be a word (free morphemes) or a part of a word (bound morpheme) “Boy” has two morphemes: ‘boy’ and ‘s’ Mean Length of Utterance (MLU): a primary measure of language sophistication; average number of (free and bound) morphemes used per utterance Syntax: rules of grammar; structure of a language Not the same as meaning. Sentences can be grammatically correct but nonsensical Semantics: set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language Pragmatics: rules for the appropriate use of language in particular contexts; the social use of language Reciprocity, disclosure (how much info you disclose), verbosity, speech registers (e.g. formal vs informal speech) Behaviorist/Learning View: (early to mid-20 century) Language is learned just like anything else is learned o Reinforcement – operant conditioning o Imitation – observational learning Failures: (obvious to anyone who spends time with young kids) o Parents don’t spend much time teaching grammar o Children generate more grammatical sentences than they hear Aneeqa Akhtar March 2 , 2016 Nativist View We are biologically wired to learn language with ease All infants learn grammar around the same time Noam Chomsky: language acquisition device (LAD): an innate mental structure that guides the acquisition of language “Wug” test Could not have been learned through imitation: “I hurted my toe” Interactionist View Innate, biological capacity for language interacts with environmental experience o Language is a result of the interaction between cognitive abilities and the linguistic environment Language is learned in a social context o Adults change speech to help children learn Expansion: expanding a child’s statements Recasting: a child’s incomplete sentence is recast in a more complex grammatical form Infant Directed Speech (Motherese) Language Development The rate of children’s vocabulary development is influence by the amount of talk they are exposed to. The more speech that is addressed to a toddler, the more rapidly the toddler will learn a new word Exposure is not enough. Amount of environmental speech, either live or via TV, does not predict language development. Only speech directed towards the child helps. Development is perhaps the most incredible of all human abilities o By the age of 2: vocab of a few hundred words By 6: over 10,000 words By 18: 60,000 Adulthood: 100,000+ o Variable rate, but the same simple -> complex progression for everyone Critical Period: a limited time in which an event can optimally occur o Learning a language is easiest early in life (neural plasticity) o Interruption or enrichment during these time period can have negative or positive effect respectively o Language only fails to develop in extreme circumstances (feral children) Infants are equipped for language even before birth o Auditory processing occurs in utero o Preference at birth for familiar voice Newborns prefer to hear speech over other sounds – they prefer to listen to “baby talk”: the high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants o The human voice interests babies Preverbal Communication Physical immaturity early on constrains sounds infants can produce Infants communicate from birth -> crying o Prepare vocal tracts for speech (sighing, burping) Aneeqa Akhtar nd March 2 , 2016 At 2 months, infants begin making sounds that are language-based o Starts with cooing: vowel-like sounds such as ‘ooo’ or’aah’ At around 6 months, infants begin making phoneme sounds that have no meaning o Cooing turns into babbling (reflects sounds and intonations of the experienced culture) Deaf children begin to differ from hearing babies at the babbling stage Babies exposed to sign language “babble” Children begin using gestures, which are symbols, shortly before their first birthdays Gestures and words convey a message equally well. Sometimes gestures pave the way for language Semantic Development: Vocab Receptive language precedes productive language At about 7-8 months, infants readily learn to recognize new words and remember h=them for weeks o Most 6 month olds orient to Mommy vs. Daddy when referenced At about 10 months, most children understand 100+ words even though they may not yet be able to speak First spoken word usually occurs at 12 months