ANTH 1500 Week 5 Notes
ANTH 1500 Week 5 Notes ANTH 1500
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Parker on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1500 at Western Michigan University taught by Machicek in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Race, Biology, and Culture in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Modern Human Origins and Culture The Origins, Evolution, and Dispersal of Modern People The type specimen, dubbed Neanderthal 1, consisted of a skull cap, two femora, three bones from the right arm, two from the left arm, part of the left ilium, fragments of a scapula, and ribs Archaic Homo sapiens in Africa Archaic Homo sapiens Large face with brow ridge Large, heavily worn front teeth Near-modern brain size Bodo (Ethiopia) 600,000 years old 1,250 cc Kabwe (Zambia) 250,000 years old 1,300 cc Late Archaic Homo sapiens in West Asia In the Middle East and in Europe, late archaic Homo sapiens are better known as Neandertals Late Archaic Homo sapiens in Asia Shanidar, Iraq 45,000 years old Edlerly male Heavy wear on teeth Very large brain Eye injury; arm amputation; foot with arthritis Late Archaic Homo sapiens in Europe: Neadertals: La Chapella-aux-Saints La Chapelle-aux-Saints (France) 60,000 years old M. Boule interpretation Arthritic, cold-adapted, elderly male Neandertal Late Archaic Homo sapiens in Europe: Neandertals: Krapina Krapina Rock Shelter, Croatia 130,000 years old Hundreds of fossils Cannibalism Late Archaic Homo sapiens in Europe: Neandertals Were Cold Adapted Cold Adaptations Large nasal aperture (heat the air) Large infraorbital foramina (blood flow to face) Late Archaic Homo sapiens in Europe: Neandertal Body Proportions Bergmann’s rule Cold-adapted animals are large Reduced surface area relative to body size (reduce heat loss) Allen’s rule Cold-adapted animals have short limbs Reduced surface area through which heat can escape Neandertal Tools Mousterian Middle Paleolithic Levallois Upper Paleolithic Late Archaic Homo sapiens in Europe: Neandertal Intelligence Buried dead Deliberately positioned Spoken language Kebara hyoid Brain laterality FOXP2 gene Symbols Necklaces Body pigments Early Modern Homo sapiens Chauvet Cave Art: Rhinos and lions are among the animals depicted in this Ardeche cave painting, which is about 30,000 years old Early Modern Homo sapiens in Africa Modern Homo sapiens Omo and Herto, Ethiopia 150,000-200,000 years Klasies River Mouth Cave, South Africa 90,000 years old Anatomies: High forehead and round skull with reduced face and teeth Chin Gracile postcranial skeleton Early Modern Homo sapiens in Africa: Biology and Behavior The oldest, most complete Homo sapiens fossil is from Herto, Ethiopia Early Modern Homo sapiens in Asia Skhul V, Israel, 90,000 years old Cohabitation of modern Homo sapiens and Neandertals Zhoukoudian Early Modern Homo sapiens in Europe Dolni Vestonice, Czech Republic Cro-Magnon, France Homo sapiens Meet Neandertals in Europe Lagar Velho DNA from Archaic Homo sapiens Archaic Homo sapiens DNA present in modern humans Neandertals 1-4% in modern humans Denisovans Interbred with ancestors of Melanesians and Chinese The Australian and Pacific Migrations Australia migration 40,000 years ago Required boats Mungo man Kow Swamp The First Americans Shovel-shaped incisors Fossils in Americas by 10,000 years ago The First Americans: DNA and Tools DNA similarities with northeast Asians Clovis and Folsom cultures Human Adaptations in living people Part 1 thermoregulation, skin color and high altitude adaptation Biology in the Present: Living People Human variability in form and function in adults is the result of the interaction of biocultural complexes and reflects evolutionary scenarios The interaction of genes and environment In the development of an individual, a complex interplay of the genetic materials and environmental (which of course includes culture) factors is responsible for the outcome: a functioning (and reproducing) adult: Genes + interaction with ENVIRONMENT = ADULT Form (Genotype) (Phenotype) Adaptive Significance of Human Variation Human variation result of adaptations to environmental conditions Physiological response to the environment operate at two levels: Long term (genetic) evolutionary changes characterize individuals within a population or species Short term temporary physiological response-acclimatization Environmental Challenges Human variation is related to environmental variation, with many biological complexes reacting to variations such as: Disease, temperature, altitude, nutrition Phenotypic Plasticity Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment Homeostasis The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes Life History: Growth and Development Fertilization Prenatal stage 3 trimesters; 9+ months Postnatal stage Neonatal (month 1) Infancy (month 2-weaning) Childhood (3-7 years) Juvenile (7-12 years) Puberty Adolescence (post-puberty) Adult Stage Reproductive period Senescence Prenatal Health Stressors in the uterine environment can affect adult health The fetal origins hypothesis (David Barker) Life History: Growth and Development Bone Growth Epiphysis Diaphysis Growth plate Grandmother Effect Humans experience prolonged post-menopausal survival Adaptation Changes or modifications that enable a person or group to survive in a given environment This can be accomplished by means of: Biological mechanisms Genetics Physiology-acclimatization or physiological adaptation also occurs at the level of the individual but can happen at any time in an individual’s life. A tan, for instance, is a physiological adaptation to increased sun exposure Development Cultural, behavioral mechanisms Temperature Adaptation-Thermal Environment Mammals and birds have evolved complex physiological mechanisms to maintain a constant body temperature Humans are found in a wide variety of thermal environments, ranging from 120 degrees F to -60 degrees F Climate Adaptation: Heat Stress Vasodilation: the dilatation of blood vessles, which decreases blood pressure Sweating and Hairlessness Long-term adaptations to heat evolved in our ancestors Thermoregulation Process that allows the human body to maintain its core internal temperature State of having an even internal temperature is called homeostasis Surface area to volume ratio Bergmann’s Rule (overall size) Ecogeographich principle: within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments-species of smaller size are found in warmer regions Allen’s Rule (limb proportions) A warm-blooded animal species having distinct geographic populations, the limbs, ears, and other appendages of the animals living in cold climates tend to be shorter than in animals of the same species living in warm climates Climate Adaptation: Cold Stress Vasoconstriction Shivering Elevated BMR Clothing & shelter Why is cold so hard for us? We are tropical creatures; therefore, we adapt better to heat than to cold Migration of mitochondrial genome Survival in extreme cold Avoid wind chill-hastens hypothermia Avoid frostbite-immobilizes Shivering-requires extra nutrition Human Adaptation: Skin Color Variation in which a morphological trait changes gradually over geographic space is called clinal variation or a cline Skin color in Homo sapiens forms a latitudinal cline or north-to-south cline Skin Color Influenced by three substances: 1. Hemoglobin, when it is carrying oxygen, gives a reddish tinge to the skin 2. Carotene, a plant pigment which the body synthesizes into vitamin A, provides a yellowish cast 3. Melanin, has the ability to absorb ultraviolet radiation preventing damage to DNA Climate Adaptation: Skin Coloration UV Radiation UV radiation helps synthesize vitamin D Necessarily for proper skeletal development UV radiation depletes folic acid Necessary for DNA synthesis & spinal development High Altitude Adaptation Adaptation: High Altitude High Altitude Stressors Alternating daily extremes of climate Hypoxia Oxygen deprivation Usually begins with inability to do normal physical activities without fatigue Medical Conditions Experienced at High Altitudes Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) Shortness of breath, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, headache, sleeplessness Pulmonary Edema (PE) Fluid accumulation and swelling in the alveoli of the lungs Result of increased blood pressure in the pulmonary vessels Who’s Susceptible? Most lowland people develop hypoxia symptoms at 1-2 miles altitude Populations most successful at adjusting or dealing with environmental stressors at high altitudes have inhabited these regions for thousands of years Peoples of High Altitude Regions Nepal and the Tibetan Plateau High Andes, Peru Ethiopian Highlands