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Chemistry 110 Week 6

by: Mikaela Notetaker

Chemistry 110 Week 6 CHEM 110

Mikaela Notetaker

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Chapter 3 Covalent and Ionic compounds, and Polyatomic compounds.
Introduction to Chemistry
Melissa G. Ely
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Notetaker on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at West Virginia University taught by Melissa G. Ely in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chemistry in Chemistry at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Chapter 3 Atoms, Compounds, and symbols Group number = the number of electrons on the outer most shell of the atom. (Except He since it only has 2 electrons) Chemical compound: composed of 2 or more elements that are chemically combined in definite proportions. Chemical Formula: Used to specify whole number ratio of elements in a compound. Periodic Table: 1. Rows: referred to as periods. 2. Columns: referred to as groups specified by headings IA, IIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, and VIIIA. a. Note: elements within same group have similar properties or rather so that elements with similar properties lie within same group. Atoms present: 1. H 2 – H= 2, O = 1 2. Mg(OH) - M2 = 1, O = 2, H = 2 3. Al 2S 2 )8 3Al=2, S=6, O=24 Classification of Chemical Compounds 1. Molecular/Covalent Compounds a. Formed by the combination of two or more nonmetals! i. Ex. CH (m4thane), SiH (Silan4) all of these are made with elements that are to the right of the black line, and hydrogen. b. Consist of discrete molecules that move about as a unit. c. Smallest bit of a molecular compound is referred to as a molecule. d. Chemical formula is referred to as a molecular formula. e. Atoms in a molecule are held together by covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are due to the sharing of electrons between two atoms. 2. Ionic Compounds a. Formed by the combination of a metal cation with a nonmetal anion (metal + nonmetal), or a polyatomic ion. i. Ex. KCl, MgCl , 2lBr 3 -1 -2 - ii. Polyatomic Ions: NO =nitri2e, NO =nitrate,3SO =Sulfite, SO3 4 2=Sulfate, OH=Hydroxide, CN =Cyanide, CO = Carbonate,3PO 4- 3 1 1 -1 =Phosphate, NH =Amm4nium, H O =Hydroniu3, ClO = 4 Perchlorate, ClO =C3lorate, ClO 21= Chlorite, ClO = -1 Hypochlorite b. Consist of a three-dimensional array of ions such that no particular cation belongs to a particular anion. c. Smallest bit of an ionic compound is referred to as a formula unit. d. Chemical formula is referred to as a formula unit. The formula unit specifies the smallest whole number ratio of the cation to anion. e. Ions are held together by ionic bonds. Ionic bonds are due to the electrostatic forces of attraction between the positive cations and the negative anions. Identify Compound as Covalent or Ionic: 1. CH = Covalent 4 2. PCl 3 Covalent 3. CaO = Ionic 4. MgF =2Ionic 5. CaCl = Ionic 6. C 6 =6Covalent 7. P 2 =5Covalent 8. Fe 2SO )4 3Ionic (metal + polyatomic) Charges of ions in ionic compounds: <-Metals Nonmetals-> IA = +1, IIA = +2, B-groups = Variable, IIIA = +3 IVA = -4, VA = -3, VIA = -2, VIIA = -1, VIIA,0 = 0 Note: Post-transition metals (metals in Groups IIIA through VIA) also have variable charges. 1. Cations (+): a. Formed by loss of electrons. b. Number of protons > number of electrons. c. Metals like to form cations in ionic compounds. 2. Anion (-): a. Formed by gain of electrons b. Number of electrons > number of protons c. Non-metals like to form anions in ionic compounds Polyatomics (composite) Ions: Ion formed from a group of atoms where charge is shared over all atoms. Held together by covalent bonds. Determine the number of protons and electrons in the following ions: +2 1. Mn a. P = 25 b. E- = 25-2 = 23 -3 2. P a. P = 15 b. E- = 15+3 = 18 +1 3. Cu a. P = 29 b. E- = 29 -1 = 28 Formula Unit: Chemical formula with subscripts that give smallest whole number ratio of metal cation to nonmetal anion that gives a neutral formula unit. Note: When form ionic compounds they are neutral so number of positive charges (cation) = number negative charges (anion) The charge of one ion becomes the subscript of the other. Reduce the subscripts to the smallest whole number’s that retain the ratio of ions. Give the formula unit of the ionic compounds: +2 -1 1. Ba and Cl = Ba Cl = BaCl 2 2. K and I = K +1 I = KI -2 +3 -2 3. Al and SO 3 = Al SO 3 = Al 2SO )3 3 4. Ni +2 and CO -2= Ni +2 CO -2= Ni (CO ) = NiCO 3 3 2/2 3 2/2 3


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