Sociology 2/29 and 3/2 Notes
Sociology 2/29 and 3/2 Notes 1101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicolas Jarrell on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1101 at Ohio State University taught by Professor Vincent Roscigno in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
2/29 Gender Stratification -Sex- the biological distinction between male and female -Biological Differentiation Chromosomes -XX and XY -XXY and XYY can occur in rare cases Hormones -estrogen and testosterone (significant across and within group variations) 4,000 men and women screened, and no inherent brain differences found in structure -How you’re socialized affects the brain -Gender- Behavioral proscriptions, socializations, and roles tied to one’s sex -Sexual Orientation- orientation in terms of sexual attraction/partners -Gender Identity- Internal, subjective identification relative to male, female, or one of a variety of other designations (trans, gender fluid, non-binary, gender-queer, ect.) Gender in time and space -Gender has never been the same -Consider changes in sex and gender roles and expectations over the last 50-100 years in the U.S. Gender does not always look the same across cultures: -Mead’s research in New Guinea (1930’s) showed significant variation between tribes and with outside cultures - In some the women act like men and the men act like women -Some they all act like women -In some the men act like men and the women act like women Socialization and Environment -Gender roles are learned via socialization, both early on and throughout life -Varying social environments produce different versions of men and women -We enact gender, in an ongoing manner, both due to socialization and ongoing expectations placed on us -Gender is largely socially constructed -This has historical and still contributes in a substantial way to a division of labor/stratification/inequality -How do we sociologically explain gender? -Both Conflict and Functionalist Theorists agree that there tend to be largely learned, behavioral differences between sexes, and that society defines these in largely binary terms -Functionalists- see gender roles as, more or less neutral and natural, providing and establishing a functionalist division of labor -Conflict Theorists- focus on the inequality that is created via sex/gender binaries, in relation to sexual orientation, and within institutions Research on how we become gendered -Pre-birth expectations and behavior -Infancy- Treatment, dress, and play -Childhood- Play, appearance, Media, and setting boundaries -Peer interaction Gender socialization is clearly an important part of the process, such that children already have a sense of the appropriate at early ages Doing gender -Gender, beyond socialization, is something that is done- accomplished- each day, reinforced by: -Expectations -Institutions -Culture Gender as culturally patterned and largely binary behavioral proscription Certainly embedded within culture -Notions and valuations of masculinity and feminity ( as essentially opposites ) -Policing and deviating behaviorally (in terms of gender role enactment, gender identity, or sexual orientation) from what’s repeated with regard to your sex -Sanctions and violence -Sexual harassment -Questioning of sexual orientation, and/or attacks/ bullying on that basis -Risk of social isolation or institutionally 3/2 Gender Stratification Gender as Culturally Patterned and Largely Binary Behavioral Description -Cross over and rejection of the binary -Sanctioning is real -Socialization plays a large part -Doing gender -Gender, beyond socialization, is something that is done, accomplished, each day, reinforced by: -Expectations -Institutions -Culture Doing gender yourselves, in everyday behavior Culture and Institutions tend to reify such stratification patterns and related expectations, while often providing the “blueprint” that makes is easier for us to “Do Gender” The Media -Males as central character, including children’s books/ programming -Some concerted efforts to change this over the past decade -Ongoing dual depiction of women -Traditional wife/ caretaker or objectification/ sexual object Education -Similar concerted efforts, though we still find slippage and biases Gender Systems -Patriarchy- refers to the gender system in societies, where men are more dominant -Nearly all societies are patriarchal, although the degree varies greatly -Gender inequality refers to the difference in power, status, access, and choices for men and women and whether they are truly equitable Other sometimes related, inequalities, sanctions, and exclusions surround sexual orientation and gender identities that do not fall so neatly into the binary Men benefit in a number of ways pertaining to power in society, within institutions and within their families and relationships, but there are other costs -Constraint-Life Choices -Drive towards competitiveness -Stress, anxiety, and pressure in fulfilling the “male role” For Women: -Constraint and patterning of educational, occupational, and behavioral choices -Jobs gender typed as female are valued less and payed less -Gender gap in earnings has narrowed, but remains in place -Double Burden of Second Shift as mother/caretaker -The ongoing difficulty of balancing work and family rests disproportionately on women -Managers still tend to see women as more tied to family than work, impacting a women’s ability to achieve responsible and more highly revered positions -discrimination in hiring, firing, and promotion
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