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Neural signaling + ch 9 notes

by: Emily Wu

Neural signaling + ch 9 notes PSYCH 50

Marketplace > Stanford University > Psychlogy > PSYCH 50 > Neural signaling ch 9 notes
Emily Wu
GPA 4.105

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About this Document

notes cover the neural/synapse signaling reading in the appendix and the selected boxes in chapter 9. email:
Intro to Cognitive Neuroscience
Justin Gardner
Class Notes
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Wu on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 50 at Stanford University taught by Justin Gardner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Stanford University.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
Appendix: Synaptic Transmission    ● presynaptic element a specialized region on the axon terminal that conveys the neural  signal  ● postsynaptic element a site on the target cell’s dendrite or cell body that receives the  neural signal    Electrical synapses    ● current flows from presynaptic neuron into postsynaptic neuron  ● pre and post synaptic neurons are linked gap junction  ● gap junction contains specially aligned ion channels that allow ions to pass through  ● transmission across gap junction can go either way and is really fast    Chemical synapses    ● space between pre and postsynaptic neurons is call​ynaptic cle; space is much  larger than a gap junction  ● presynaptic neuron hasvesicle: small spheres, membrane­bounded, contains  neurotransmitters  ● transmission sequence:  ○ action potential reaches axon terminal  ○ voltage­gated calcium ion channels open  ○ influx of Ca2+ into presynaptic terminal  ○ causes vesicles to fuse with synaptic membrane and empty the neurotransmitters  into synaptic cleft  ○ transmitters diffuse across cleft and bind to receptors on membrane of  postsynaptic neuron  ○ alters the opening/closing of ion channels in postsynaptic neuron → either  increases or decreases probability that postsynaptic neuron will fire an action  potential  ○ reuptake of neurotransmitters back into the presynaptic cell    Neurotransmitters  ● classified into:  ● small molecule neurotransmitteroften individual amino acids  ○ glutamate: excitatory   ○ GABA: inhibitory  ○ acetylcholine: excitatory  ○ ATP: excitatory  ○ serotonin, dopamine, histamine   ● neuropeptides​ larger proteins made of 3­36 amino acids    Receptors  ● classified into:  ○ ionotropic receptorslinked directly to ion channels  ■ contains an extracellular site that binds neurotransmitters, and  membrane­spanning domain that creates an ion channel  ■ combines neurotransmitter binding and ion channel functions  ■ made up of several units  ■ create rapid postsynaptic potentials  ○ metabotropic receptors activate ion channels by activation of intermediate called  G­protein  ■ contains extracellular site that binds neurotransmitters and intracellular  site that binds G proteins  ■ binding of neurotransmitter → binding and activation of G protein → G  protein interacts directly with ion channels or other proteins   ■ consist of single units   ■ create slower postsynaptic potentials       Glutamate    ● important for brain function  ● nearly all excitatory neurons in central nervous system are activated by glutamate   ● can’t cross blood­brain barrier, so must be synthesized from chemicals already present  ○ glutamine (released by glial cells) is precursor  ○ glutamine is taken up by presynaptic neurons and metabolized into glutamate   ○ glutamate is released into synaptic cleft → then taken up by glia → turned back  into glutamine → transported out of axon terminal   ● receptors are all excitatory     Excitatory and Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials  ● excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPS​increase likelihood of action potential firing in  postsynaptic cell  ● inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPdecrease likelihood of action potential firing  ● reversal potentia the current that underlies the postsynaptic potential  ● if reversal potential is more positive and exceeds action potential threshold, excitatory  response is generated  ● if reversal potential is more negative than action potential threshold, inhibitory response  is generated   ● a neuron is innervated by thousands of synapses, so it takes summation of all  postsynaptic potentials to influence action potential generation       Chapter 9: Declarative Memory    Introductory Box    ● HM gets amnesia because of removal of medial temporal lobes  ● unable to form new memories (episodic memory)  ● unable to learn new facts (semantic memory)  ● hippocampal damage in some children resulted in impaired episodic memory but can  retain semantic memory/learn new facts, perceptual and working memory abilities intact  ● hippocampus specifically associated with episodic memory but not semantic memory    Box 9B    ● fMRI can distinguish between encoding and retrieval in episodic memory  ● subsequent memory paradigm​ : using event related potentials to compare between  successful/unsuccessful trials during encoding or retrieval of memory   ● successful encoding produces greater activity than for trials where stimulus was  forgotten → subsequent memory effect → tend to be seen over frontoparietal regions     Box 9C    ● recalling new and old items show different activity in event related potentials  ● first: 300­500ms after new stimulus is presented, new items elicit greater voltage over  midfrontal regions than old items  ● second: 400­800ms after stimulus, old items elicit more positive voltage over parietal  electrodes than new items → left parietal effect   ○ effect more pronounced for more complex levels of recollection   ○ left­lateralized for verbal materials  ○ effect is greater for deeply encoded than shallowly encoded items   ● third: 600­1200 ms after stimulus, old items elicit more positive voltage over right frontal  regions than new items → right frontal effect    


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