Research Methods & Statistics
Research Methods & Statistics Psychology 211
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Notetaker on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 211 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Zachary Pilot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Statistics in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Psy Notes 6 Monday, February 29, 2016 11:22 AM Two types of samples • Probability ○ Can quantify the likelihood of being selected • Non-probability ○ Can't quantify the likelihood of being selected Probability Sampling • Accurately describes a population • Must be a representative sample • Sampling error ○ Rarely mirrors population Simple random sampling • Known population • Random selection • Equal selection probability • Requires a sampling frame ○ Ex. The candy bag Systematic sampling • Not concerned with population size • Every nth person • Not random Stratified random sampling • Divide population into groups "strata" • Randomly sample from each strata • Ensures adequate number from each group Cluster sampling • Clusters occur naturally • Sampling clusters, and then sample participants • More efficient than stratified random, because only clusters are sample • Clusters are essentially the same as one another, Strata are fundamentally different ○ Multi step process Probability sampling issues • Nonresponse ○ Some participants don't respond, are they different form those who did respond? • Misgeneralization wrong ○ Generalizing to wrong population Nonprobability • Selection probability is unknown • Not truly random • Used to study relationships among variables • Most behavioral research Convenience sampling • Uses easy- to- reach participants • Most typical type of nonprobability • Replication shows generalizability ○ Just taking what is there. No specific Quota sampling • Specific proportions of people with selected characteristics • Specific proportions of people with selected characteristics • Often used for market research ○ Focus Group Snowball sampling • Used for hard to reach groups • Can use incentives to (cautiously) increase response ○ Word of mouth ○ Ex. My cousin sally heard from her friend Janet who heard from… How many participants? • Want enough participants to detect an effect power Power • Ability to find true effect • Helps estimate required sample size • Larger sample = greater power ○ More variability ○ Some error
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