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Gen Psych, Week 6 Notes

by: Marie Fong

Gen Psych, Week 6 Notes PSYC 1001 - General Psychology

Marie Fong
University of Memphis
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover material covered on 03/01, including emotions, motives, and stimuli.
General Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, General Psychology, memphis, University of Memphis, emotions
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marie Fong on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 - General Psychology at University of Memphis taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
CHAPTER 9 Stimulus Motives •Reflect needs for information, exploration, manipulation, and sensory input •Aid survival •Present in infancy •Present in animals and humans Stimulus Motives: Arousal Theory •Arousal –Activation of body and nervous system –Ranges from low (sleeping) to high (excitement, anxiety, fear) –Most prefer moderate arousal –Some prefer high arousal (sensation seekers) •Yerkes -Dodson Law: –If a task is simple, it is best for arousal to be high; –if a task is complex, lower levels of arousal provide for the best performance Learned Motives •Social Motives –Acquired by growing up in a particular society or culture –Learned by socialization Learned Motives: Need for Achievement •(nAch) •Desire to excel, or to meet some internal standard of excellence •Different from a Need for Power –Desire to have impact or control over others Learned Motives: Need for Achievement •Characteristics of those high in need for achievement moderate risk takers •Avoid goals that are too easy or too hard –Complete difficult tasks –Earn better grades –Tend to excel in chosen occupations –Attribute success to ability; failure to insufficient effort –More likely to renew efforts when they perform poorly Keys to Success •Drive and determination lead to success •Talent is nurtured by dedication and hard work –Especially when parents support a child’s interest •Emphasize always doing one’s best •Self-confidence affects motivation by influencing the challenges you will undertake the effort you will make how long you will persist when things don’t go well. •Self-confidence is nurtured by –Set goals that are specific and challenging, but attainable. –Visualize the steps you need to take to reach your goal. –Advance in small steps. –When you first acquire a skill, your goal should be to make progress in learning. Later, you can concentrate on improving your performance, compared with other people. –Get expert instruction that helps you master the skill. –Find a skilled model (someone good at the skill) to emulate. –Get support and encouragement from an observer. –If you fail, regard it as a sign that you need to try harder, not that you lack ability. Motives in Perspective •Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs –Maslow’s ordering of needs based on presumed strength or potency –Some needs are more powerful than others and thus will influence your behavior to a greater degree –Basic Needs –Growth Needs –Meta-Needs Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation •Intrinsic Motivation –Motivation coming from within, not from external rewards –based on personal enjoyment of a task –Increases creativity and work quality Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation •Extrinsic Motivation –Based on obvious external rewards, obligations, or similar factors (e.g., pay, grades) –Excessive extrinsic rewards can decrease intrinsic motivation and spontaneous interest •Can lose interest if people are required to do something they typically enjoy (1) if there’s no intrinsic interest in an activity to begin with, you have nothing to lose by using extrinsic rewards (2) if basic skills are lacking, extrinsic rewards may be necessary at first (3) extrinsic rewards can focus attention on an activity so real interest will develop (4) if extrinsic rewards are used, they should be small and phased out as soon as possible Emotions •Characterized by physiological arousal and changes in facial expressions, gestures, posture, and subjective feelings •Motivate behavior •Linked to adaptive behaviors –Aid our attempts to survive and adjust to changing conditions –Attacking, fleeing, seeking comfort, helping, reproducing, living in groups, raising children, defending one another •May have negative effects •Physiological Changes –Regulated bysympathetic nervous system –Include changes in heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration, and other involuntary bodily responses –Include release of hormones •Emotional Expression –Outward signs of what a person is feeling •Emotional Feelings –Private emotional experience Primary Emotions •Plutchik’s Eight Primary Emotions (2003) –Fear –Surprise –Sadness –Disgust –Anger –Anticipation –Joy –Acceptance (Trust) Emotion and the Brain •Positive emotions processed by left hemisphere •Negative emotions processed by right hemisphere •Amygdala –Specialized in producing fear –Bypasses cortex; receives information directly and quickly •Damage to amygdala –Can’t feel fear -Unable to “read” other’s emotional expressions Physiology and Emotion •Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) –Neural system that connects brain with internal organs and glands •SympatheticBranch (“Fight or Flight”) –Activates body for emergency action •Parasympathetic Branch –Quiets body and conserves energy –Responds more slowly; takes longer to recover from intense emotion •Sudden Death –After strong emotional shock, sympathetic system becomes too active •Results in excessive stress –Parasympathetic Rebound •After shock, parasympathetic system overreacts –lowers blood pressure too much –Slows heart to a stop--RARE Physiology and Emotion: Lie Detectors •Polygraph - device that records changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, sweating (Galvanic Skin Response (GSR))–lie detector •Categories of Lie Detector Questions –Irrelevant Questions •Neutral, emotional questions in a polygraph test –Relevant Questions •Questions to which only someone guilty should react by becoming anxious or emotional –Control Questions •Questions that almost always provoke anxiety in a polygraph (e.g. “Have you ever taken any office supplies?”) •Lie detection may be inaccurate, and altered by: –Stress of situation –thinking of past emotional event instead of current one –Self-inflicted pain –Tranquilizing drugs –Good liars •More likely to label an innocent person guilty •FMRI may be better at detecting truth Expressing Emotions •Emotional expressions evolved to communicate feelings to others •Survival aid –clues to what people will do next Facial Expressions •Basic expressions appear to be recognized around the world –Fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, and happiness are –Contempt and interest may also be “universal” –more research needed –Even blind children make these expressions Facial Expressions •Humans produce around 20,000 facial expressions •Most expressions are facial blends –A mixture of two or more basic expressions •Three basic dimensions 1.Pleasantness-Unpleasantness •Degree to which a person is experiencing pleasure or displeasure 2.Attention-Rejection •Degree of attention given to a person or object 3.Activation •Degree of arousal a person is experiencing •Cultural values may influence emotional expressions •Gender roles may dictate which emotions are acceptable for men and women to express Body Language (Kinesics) •Study of communication through body movement, posture, gestures, and facial expressions •Body language reveals overall emotional tone –Relaxation or tension –Liking or disliking •Cultural learning also affects the meaning of gestures Theories of Emotion •James-Lange Theory –Emotional feelings follow bodily arousal and come from awareness of such arousal –We often don’t experience an emotion until after reacting •Cannon-Bard Theory –The thalamus (in brain) causes emotional feelings and bodily arousal to occur at the same time •Schachter’s Cognitive Theory –Emotions occur when a label is applied to general physical arousal through the process of attribution •Attribution –mental process of assigning causes to events –We do not always make the correct attributions about our emotions Theories of Emotion: Emotional Appraisal •Richard Lazarus •Emotions are influenced by how you think of an even in the first place •Emotional appraisal refers to evaluating the personal meaning of a stimulus Theories of Emotions: Facial Feedback Hypothesis •Carol Izard •Emotions cause innately programmed changes in facial expressions •Sensations from facial expressions help define what emotion a person feels •Paul Ekman •Believes that making faces can cause emotion Theories of Emotion: Suppressing Emotion •Some people are good at suppressing outward signs of emotion –Increases activity in sympathetic nervous system –Requires a lot of effort; impairs thinking and memory as energy goes to self- control –People are more at risk for depression •People who express emotions experience better emotional and physical health Theories of Emotion: A Modern View of Emotion •An emotional stimulus is appraised •Appraisal –creates ANS arousal –initiates cognitive labeling –Leads to adaptive behaviors –Release innate emotional expressions –Changes conscious awareness of one’s own state Psychology in action: Emotional Intelligence –The Fine Art of Self Control •Emotional Intelligence –Ability to perceive, use, understand, and manage emotions –Accepting that emotions are essential to who we are and how we survive –Combination of skills, including empathy, self-control, self-awareness, sensitivity to feelings of others, persistence, and self-motivation Important Skills •Perceiving emotions •Using emotions •Understanding emotions •Managing emotions Emotion, Motivation and the Principles of Classical Conditioning •Stimulus Generalization: A tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar, but not identical, to a conditioned stimulus •Stimulus Discrimination: The learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli Classical Conditioning in Humans •Conditioned Emotional Responses– Learned Fears •Phobia: intense, unrealistic, irrational fear of a specific situation or object •Conditioned Emotional Response: learned emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus –Amygdala becomes more active; produces feelings of fear •Conditioned Emotional Responses–Desensitization •Therapy for CERs •Exposes phobic people gradually to feared stimuli while they stay calm and relaxed •Vicarious Classical Conditioning–Learning to respond emotionally to a stimulus by observing another’s emotional reactions –Explains how we develop attitudes to foods, politics, ethnic groups, etc.


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