Traditional World Music Latin America Notes PT2
Traditional World Music Latin America Notes PT2 MUSI 3583 503
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MUSI 3583 503
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Bradford MacGyver DDS
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Dixon on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 3583 503 at Oklahoma State University taught by Kunzel, Stephen N in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see World Traditional Music in Music at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Cumbia Folkloric dance troupesbia The maracas and the gaitas, two flutes made from a cactuslike plant, are Amerindian instruments used in the cumbia. The cumbia accompaniment also emphasizes percussion, once again showing African influence. As with many Latin American vernacular genres, the cumbia circulated widely during the 1930s and 40s in dance band arrangements and was popular in the U.S., albeit with simplified rhythms. Vallenato 1940s and 50s mixture of African and Amerindian influences accordion, caja (a small doubleheaded drum), and guacharaca (a scraped gourd with notches) daytoday hardships in the region 1950s and 60s the vallenato was considered unsophisticated 1970s it began to grow in popularity and electric bass was often added 1990s it was considered Colombia's national style, supported by drug cartels Uruguayan candombe Black confraternities in carnival celebrations in Montevideo (Uruguay). A musical form practiced by black confraternities in Montevideo (Uruguay) carnival during the 1940s. Music played by primarily white tango orchestras around the Rio de la Plata (River Plate). A 1970s "fusion" version that combined influences of jazz, bossa nova, and Indian tabla drums. Venacular Genres in Mexico The Cuban son combines African and Hispanic elements, whereas in Mexico, the son is a couple dance that may involve a good bit of footstamping. Accompanying the Mexican son is the mariachi ensemble, which consists of various guitars, harps, violins, and trumpets. The son may have an instrumental introduction, an interlude (sometimes improvised), and a coda, or ending. Regional variations Corrido Another Mexican genre is the corrido. Like the ballad, the corrido is a narrative form that tells a story, verse by verse. The corrido is a sort of musical newspaper with stories that usually center around some political event. In the nineteenth century, the verses of the corridos came from large fliers, or broadsheets, which circulated around towns and villages to transmit the news of the day. A favorite topic was the Mexican Revolution. As with some of the other genres discussed here, many corridos cannot really be said to have any fixed text, since there are so many variants between written versions; in addition, many corridos are spontaneously improvised. Usually all the verses are set with the same music, a format that is called strophic. The accompaniment generally consists of one or more guitars. Curiously, corridos were first recorded in the U.S., primarily for Mexican immigrants who could afford gramophones. With the advent of electrical recording in 1925, onsite recording became much easier and corridos could be recorded on their home turf. Corridos have endured to the present. A subgenre, the narcocorrido, concerns the drug trade. Protest songs are a longstanding vernacular tradition in Latin America. The patriarch of Latin American protest singers was the Argentine singer and songwriter Héctor Roberto Chavero Haram (19081992), better known by his artistic name Atahualpa Yupanqui, which he chose to honor two legendary Incan chieftains. By the 1960s, many Latin American countries were suffering military coups and oppressive dictatorships. Often with little more than a guitar and a compelling voice, singers in these countries inspired a sympathetic public to share their cause. In Latin America, the nueva canción (new song) arose to challenge political oppression. Even some bossanova came to be associated with protest. Many musicians went into exile, including singer and composer Chico Buarque; singer, guitarist, and songwriter Gilberto Gil; and composer and singer Caetano Veloso. Argentina endured a military dictatorship from 1966 to 1973 only to undergo another coup in 1976, resulting in a regime even more brutal than the previous one, during which systematic "disappearing" of around 30,000 political opponents was undertaken. Mercedes Sosa, a folk singer of mestizo background and a supporter of leftwing causes, was arrested on stage during a concert in 1979. She moved to Paris and then Madrid, returning to Argentina only when the dictatorship was in its final throes. She continues to tour and make her powerful voice heard. Other protesters met worse fates. In Chile, the leftleaning government of Salvador Allende, known as Popular Unity, was strongly linked to nueva canción. One of its leading figures was songwriter, guitarist, poet, and educator Victor Jara. In September 1973, General Augusto Pinochet overthrew, with U.S. backing, the legally elected Chilean government. Days later, Jara was put to death in a stadium along with other opponents of Pinochet. Jara's music subsequently became a beacon for left leaning causes throughout Latin America. Musicians around the world were moved by the situation in Chile, including Frederic Rzewski, a U.S. composer of concert music. In 1975, Rzewski composed The People United Will Never be Defeated!, a set of thirtysix variations for solo piano on a song popular in the years before the overthrow of the Allende government (see Discover Video). Rzewski wrote the massive—and very difficult—piano work to show solidarity with the Chilean people. This work continues to be played by pianists today. In the Concert Hall most composers unwilling to completely disregard European techniques and genres Since gaining independence in the early nineteenth century, most countries have suffered periodically from crippling poverty, a rigid class structure, unequal distribution of resources, and political instability. active concert life, which depends on education, financial support, and organizations to promote concert music. Gonzalo Cordero and Francisco Pérez Camacho composed traditional religious music for the Caracas Cathedral. th 20 century Other Venezuelans attempted to establish a national music education system, especially the pianist and composer Felipe Larrazábal (18161873) Bolivia Bolivia, initially part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (Alto Perú), had been an important center of church music during the colonial period, especially at the La Plata cathedral (presentday Sucre). independence in 1825 Bolivian musical life lacked both resources and an educational infrastructure. 1840s pianos imported first decades of 20 – musical organization established In Ecuador, postindependence musical life was also fitful, and several twentiethcentury Ecuadorian composers ended up living abroad. Others, such as Luis Humberto Salgado (19031977), who honored the slain Incan chieftain Atahualpa in his music, stayed home to improve musical life. Chili Italian opera and flashy, virtuosic instrumental music attracted an upperclass concertgoing public during the nineteenth century. some Chilean composers of concert music began to be inspired by vernacular music while others, such as Domingo Santa Cruz (18991987), were influenced by European models. postindependence musical genre was the patriotic song Juan Antonio de Velasco wrote several between 181019 studied abroad: both José María Ponce de León (18461882) and later, Guillermo Uribe Holguín (18801971), trained in Paris. 1936, the Colombian National Orchestra was established with Guillermo Espinosa as its first conductor. Espinosa also assumed an important role in international musical relations. The Pan American Union in Washington D.C., which was part of a broader effort to promote hemispheric unity against the threat of European fascism and communism, sponsored cultural interchange. Among its programs was a concert series known as the InterAmerican Music Festivals, which Espinosa directed. Argentina Most European Immigrants from Spain and Italy During the nineteenth century, Argentine composers wrote mainly Italianinfluenced opera and operetta, along with salon music and symphonic works. The completion of the Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires in 1908, an opera house with some of the best acoustics in the world, only enhanced the Argentine capital's reputation as the "Paris of Latin America” many Argentine composers were motivated by nationalistic feeling. Alberto Williams (18621952) wrote a set of piano pieces, Aires de la pampa, that draws on traditional songs of the gaucho, the horseman of the pampas; like the cowboy in the United States, the gaucho is said to be endowed with daring and resourcefulness.Other composers followed suit, including Felipe Boero (18841958), who in 1929 composed El matrero (The Cattle Poacher), an opera that adapts gaucho songs and dances. By the 1930s explicitly nationalist music began to fall out of favor as Argentine composers sought a more "universal" perspective Became haven for Spaniards seeking respite from the Spanish Civil War and its repercussions, among them Julián Bautista (19011961) and Manuel de Falla (18761946) Latin Composers on the World Stage The most widely recognized Argentine composer of the twentieth century was Alberto Ginastera (19161983) When he used Argentine folk materials, he did so in such a subtle way that few listeners would detect their presence. By the 1950s, however, Ginastera was composing in the style of the European avantgarde, which meant turning toward greater abstraction and dissonance. Ginastera also benefitted from the Rockefeller Foundation, which promoted hemispheric good will through the arts. The Center for Advanced Musical Study (Instituto Torcuato di Tella, Buenos Aires) was sponsored by the Foundation and directed by Ginastera between 1963 and 1971. It became a magnet for composers from around the world who traveled there to absorb the latest compositional techniques. Ginastera also composed several operas. One of them, Bomarzo, was wildly applauded at its premiere in Washington, D.C. in 1967, but was banned in Buenos Aires because the dictatorship then in power found its explicitly sexual topics scandalous. So many Latin American composers of concert music have since risen to prominence in the international musical scene that it is impossible to do justice to all of them here. One of the more famous is Astor Piazzolla (19211992), also from Argentina. He grew up listening to the tango, a dance with a decisive beat and, when sung, plaintive lyrics. Piazzolla combined some aspects of the traditional tango with jazz elements; he also composed in the concert genres of concerto and string quartet. From another generation of Argentine composers is Osvaldo Golijov (b. 1960), who grew up listening to klezmer music, European concert music, and Piazzolla's innovative tangos. His music seems to know no stylistic boundaries: it combines klezmer, salsa, rumba, flamenco, and even Baroque elements, as in his retelling of the final days of Christ against the backdrop of a Brazilian street festival (La pasión según San Marcos). His opera Ainadamar (Fountain of Tears) is about the assassination of Lorca, which had earlier inspired Revueltas. Another important composer is Mario Lavista, born in Mexico City in 1943. At age twenty, he began studying composition with Carlos Chávez and later worked with some of Europe's leading avantgarde composers. His music from the 1960s is decidedly experimental: one chamber work requires several woodwind instruments, five woodblocks, and three shortwave radios while another, Kronos, calls for fifteen alarm clocks. Daniel Catán (19492011) was also born in Mexico City. Like the other composers just mentioned, Catán is truly an international figure: he studied in England, took his doctorate at Princeton, returned to Mexico, and now resides in Los Angeles. He is perhaps best known for his operas, which have been widely performed. His second, Florencia en el Amazonas, premiered in Houston in 1996 and alludes to the novel Love in the Time of Cholera by Gabriel García Márquez. In it, Catán combines late Romantic operatic style with a modern musical language, highlighted with artful percussion effects and immensely gratifying vocal writing. Gabriela Ortiz Torres, also Mexican, studied with Mario Lavista as well as in London. She has written for piano, small ensembles, and orchestra, and, starting in the 1990s, began composing electroacoustic music, that is, music that uses some electronic element. In Things Like that Happen, for cello solo and tape, the "natural" sounds of the cello interact with Ortiz's electronic manipulation of these same sounds, played back on the tape. Another electroacoustic piece is El Trompo (The Spinning Top), which, as the composer explains, is "open to" influences such as Latin jazz, salsa, and mambo without drawing on any of these in an obvious way. She has worked with the adventuresome string quartet, the Kronos Quartet. Other important women composers are Diana Fernández Calvo and Marta Lambertini of Argentina, Tania León of Cuba, and Gabriela Lena Frank, who was born in Berkeley, California to a Peruvian mother and a JewishAmerican father. Her music combines indigenous Peruvian music and Jewish cantorial singing, as shown in her orchestral work of 2003, An American in Perú. Other Latin American composers of note include Claudio Santoro (19191989) of Brazil, who composed instrumental music in traditional genres, such as the symphony and the string quartet. In Venezuela, Paul Desenne (born 1959) has written many imaginative works, some of which address musical memory. Andrés Posada, born in Colombia in 1954, has had his chamber music performed at Carnegie Hall, the renowned concert hall in New York City, and has been active at the Latin American Music Center at Indiana University. Founded by the Chilean composer Juan OrregoSalas in 1961, the Center promotes Latin American concert music and holds a wealth of scores and other materials. Universities are important patrons of contemporary music, and have done much to foster an international environment for music of the Americas.