Psychology of Aging Weekly Notes
Psychology of Aging Weekly Notes 22392
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenedy Ramos on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 22392 at Gonzaga University taught by Dr. Wolfe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Psychology of Aging Weekly Notes Socio-Cultural Process Model: research on aging and in particular intelligence and aging, is influenced by the dominant perspective (zeitgeist) held at the time the research is conducted (four phases identified) #1: from the early 1900s until about 1950, cross sectional research methodologies predominated – results suggested that intelligence peaked in young adulthood and then declined, goal was to find when the decline started and how rapidly it occurred, cross sectional studies confound two factors: chronological age and cohort, positive cohort trend: younger cohorts perform better or have higher ability than older, negative cohort trend: younger cohorts have less ability than when the older cohort were the same age (example: doing math now, some kids ask for a calculator because they don’t learn the pencil/paper method but older cohorts would be able to do that easily without a calculator) Classical Aging Pattern emerged as IQ tests were normed on different ages: starting in the 20’s gradual declines in the performance scale with less decline on verbal scale until around age 65 when more significant loss is found on both, cross sectional studies tender to find more significant different across ages, longitudinal studies showed more stability and perhaps improvement on verbal scales through middle age with decline on performance – classic pattern still found in older age with declines on both Terminal Drop Hypothesis replicated across many studies, drops in IQ scores shortly before death, found that large drops on measures of crystallized intelligence (usually stable) correlated with death by next point of measurement, studies not tentatively suggest that enriched mental environments as well as physical activity are associated with maintaining intellectual abilities longer and at higher levels #2: started in the 1960’sand recognized intelligence is not just on entity: individual abilities can vary in decline trajectory, methodology of measurements influence outcomes Paul Baltes: if the classic aging pattern is true, why does performance in real life remain stable and even improve in some areas with age? – proposes mechanics of intelligence (analogous to the hardware) which are the fluid abilities and do decline with age, pragmatics of intelligence (analogous to software) which is the knowledge we accumulate and can compensate for mechanics’ losses #3: intellectual abilities may not be static but there could be plasticity (change of the brain due to its environment), fluctuation within the same individual, abilities can be modified through practice and training Nancy Denney: exercised vs unexercised abilities – abilities we exercise vs those we don’t in a context of a biological ceiling, optimally exercised are those we actively work on maintaining at a high level, exercised abilities are those we practice but not to same extent, unexercised abilities we don’t practice, predicts a curve of “cognitive performance” with highest (optimally exercised), middle (exercised), and lowest (nonexercised) which declines with age but not at the same rate Seattle Longitudinal Study: Series of simultaneous cross sectional and longitudinal studies on intelligence, first wave were volunteers 7 years apart in age who were then followed longitudinally every 7 years and a new cross section was added, now in the 5 wave of the study, ability extraneous influences such as education Showed gains on most measures until the 40’s, stability on most measures through mid-50’s to 60’s, after 60’s consistent decline on all 5 measures (verbal meaning, spatial relations, inductive reasoning, numbers, word fluency), at each 7 year interval for the groups, but individuals showed variability, and vocabulary peaked at around 67 By age 67 most participants showed a decline in at least on ability, by age 88 none of the participants had declined in all 5 areas, crystallized abilities declined at a much later age than cross sectional studies suggested (which was mid-70’s) Crystallized intelligence: things we’ve learned from our culture Fluid intelligence: novel problem solving
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