BIO 1510 Week 1 and 2 Notes
BIO 1510 Week 1 and 2 Notes Bio 1510
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nausheen Zaman on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 399 views. For similar materials see (LS) Bas Life Mch in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
winter 2 The Nature of Moleculesand Proberties of WM 0 Atomic Structure 0 Contains the positively charged nucleus positive protons and neutral neutrons and the negativecharged electrons orbiting the nucleus Electrons denoted as e Negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positive charge of protons in the nucleus so they don t fly away Main atoms that are going to be discussed are Hydrogen H Oxygen 0 Carbon C and Nitrogen N I Constitute about 96 of human body weight I Hydrogen is the smallest atom with only one proton no neutrons in its nucleus and one electron orbiting around it Q o How are Atoms Categorized 0 Every element symbol is different some are straightfonNard while others are not I Sometimes the latin name of an element is abbreviated and used 0 Each atom has an atomic number I Measured in daltonsamus Atomic Mass Units I 1 daltonamu 112 of the mass of a carbon12 nucleus I Protons 1 amu Neutron 1 amu Electron O amu 0 Atomic weight depends on force of gravity 0 For convenience atomic weight atomic mass I Atomic weight is the same as atomic mass 0 What are Isotopes o Isotopes gt atoms whose protons electrons but the neutrons are different I ie C12 C13 and C14 I All have different number of neutrons in their nuclei I The after the element atomic weight 0 C12 and C13 are stable but C14 is unstable I Unstable because it has too many neutrons compared to protons in its nucleus I The nucleus breaks apart very easily as a result releasing energy radioactive decay I These are considered radioactive isotopes o Radioactive isotopes are often used in medicine I Treating cancer detecting Alzheimer s o A special protein accumulates in the brain of Alzheimer s patients and it can be detected with radioactive isotopes I C14 can be used to estimate the age of fossils dead organisms up to 50000 yrs old Carbon Dating 0 O O O Level of C14 in an organism is compared to the level of C14 in the atmosphere All living plants and animals have a certain level of C14 in their bodies I C14 enters plants in the form of C02 I Animals get C14 by eating plants When an organism dies the C14 is the same is the C14 in the air stop taking in C14 Slowly decays to N14 Half life of C14 5730 yrs I Takes 5730 yrs for 50 of C14 to turn into N14 The longer the organism is dead the more N14 is present and less C14 is present If a fossildead organism is more thanequal to 50000 yrs old another method should be used Extended exposure can do severe damage to living organisms destroying our cells Atoms Contain Discrete Energy Levels 0 O Of three subatomic particles only electrons are directly involved in the chemical activity of an atom Electrons have different energy levelsshells K L M N etc I Indicate the amount of energy the electron has Atoms whose valence shells contain unpaired electrons interact with other atoms creating chemical reactions I Think of the electrons as lonely souls looking for a soulmate in another atom s valence shell electrons Atoms without unpaired electrons are chemically inertunreactive I ie Noble gases Electrons Occupy Orbitals O O Electrons orbit around the nucleus in orbitals such as s p d f etc DO NOT CONFUSE WITH ENERGY LEVELS I areas around the nucleus where electrons are most likely to be found Energy level K 1st shell has a single s orbital 1s and can hold up to two electrons Energy level L 2nd shell has one s orbital 2s and three p orbitals 2px 2py 2pz and can hold up to 8 electrons Energy level M 3rd shell has one s orbital 3s three p orbitals 3px 3py 3pz and five d orbitals 3d1 3d2 3d3 3d4 3d5 and can hold up to 18 electrons I Formula for orbitals 2nquot2 n of shells in atom Energy level N 4th shell 24quot2 gt 32e o When Electrons GainLose Energy 0 O Electrons absorb light energy as they move to a higher level away from a nucleus Electrons release heatlight energy as they move to a lower level closer to the nucleus I The electron has to have more energy to keep the energy it had in the lower level every time it moves to a different level lons form when an atom losesgains electrons When atoms lose electrons they lose energy and move to lower energy levels closer to the nucleus When atoms gain electrons they gain energy and move to higher energy levels farther away from the nucleus OxidationReduction reactions I Oxidation loses e gains positive charge I Reduction gains e loses positive charge I Movements of electrons up and down energy levels is an oxidationreduction together ALWAYS redox reaction 0 Chemical Bonds 0 O O Atoms with incomplete outer shells tend to react so that both atoms end up with complete outer shells Can interact with receiving sharing or donating electrons I Usually result in atoms staying close together held by attractions called chemical bonds KNOW FOR EXAM Covalent Bond sharing of electron pairs Strongest lonic Bond Attraction of opposite charges Hydrogen Bond Sharing of H atom Hydrophobic Interaction Forcing of hydrophobic portions of molecules together in presence of polar substances van der Waals attraction Weak interactions between atoms due to oppositely polarized electron clouds Weakest o lonic Bonds 0 Form between two oppositely charged ions cations and anions 0 Le Table salt NaCl crystal 0 Na Sodium goes through oxidation while Cl chlorine goes through reduction I Na is a cation and Cl is an anion o Covalent Bonds Nonpolar 0 Two atoms that share one or more pairs of outershell electrons n uval ent Band o HH single covalent bond WEAKEST OO Double covalent bond 0 NN Triple covalent bond STRONGEST I It takes more energy to break this kind of bond 0 Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 0 lnvolve equal sharing of valence electrons 0 Form between atoms with the similar electronegativities o Electronegativity atom s attraction pull for shared electrons 0 Polar Covalent Bonds 0 Nonequal sharing of valence electrons 0 Form between atoms with differing electronegativities 0 Le 0H bond I 0 has higher electronegativity than H I 0 also has a partial negative charge while H has a partial positive charge 0 Hydrogen Bonds 0 Form between hydrogen atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom 0 N or F of another molecule Weaker than covalent bonds H20 is a polar molecule bc of polar covalent bonds but the bonds within the H20 molecules are Hydrogen bonds 0 Good way to remember this 0 O 0 Chemical Reaction 0 The formation and breaking of chemical bonds 0 The rate of chemical reactions depend on 0 Importance of Water cohesion H20 molecules stick to each other with hydrogen bonds A single Hydrobond is weak but if you have many molecules bonded together with Hydrobonds it becomes very strong Waterstriders walk on water without breaking the surface because of surface tension 0 Surface tension is a result of water s cohesion I adhesion H20 molecules stick to other polar molecules by hydrogen bonding O O O O O I capillary action occurs when the adhesion of H20 to glass is stronger than adhesion of H20 molecules to each other I Cohesive and Adhesive properties of water work together in order to move H20 from the roots to leaves in plants H20 has a high specific heat I Large amount of heat energy is needed to raise the temperature of water I H bonds in water absorb the heat accumulating in cells without affecting our core temperature this keeps our body from overheating H20 has a high heat of vaporization I A lot of heat is needed to turn the liquid into vapor I Allows living things to release excess body heat via sweating I If the heat of vaporization was higher we would sweat more loosing more water and would eventually dehydrate us Frozen water is less dense than liquid water I Also floats on liquid water I Two reasons 0 ln ice water molecules are organized o Hbonds are stable in ice I In liquid water Hbonds are dynamic o Constantly breaking and reforming I Bodies of water freeze from the topdown o Allows organisms to survive the winter H20 is a universal solvent Solvent something that dissolves other substances Dissolves polar molecules and ions solutes Solutes substance that is being dissolved Hydration shells clouds of H20 0 These prevent solutes from coming back together H20 organizes nonpolar molecules I Hydrophilic water loving polar I Hydrophobic waterfearing nonpolar I Water causes hydrophobic molecules to aggregate or assume specific shapes When water and oil mixed oil droplets always are formed on the surface hydrophobic exclusion o This is when hydrophobic molecules exclude themselves from H20 H20 can form ions c When Water Forms Ions Acids vs Bases 0 lower pH lt7 gt higher H and lower OH stronger acid 0 7 gt pH gt 14 gt basic 0 higher pH gt lower H and higher OH stronger base I Blood 74 pH weak base I Water 7 pH neutral o Why Do We Need Buffers o Buffer a substance that minimizes changes in pH 0 Acts by donating H when the solution becomes too basic amp accepting H when it becomes too acidic 2 i 01c l l He r V 39 Italm 1 in Hg Jili ll 7 HawU l r I 1 HLT WM Eu Vi 7112 Carbon dixidle Water a a i Carbonic acid lcarbnate ACIDOSIS ALKALOSIS o Occurs when blood becomes too 0 Occurs when blood becomes too acidic because of higher basic because of higher concentration of H concentration of OH Blood pH falls below 735 0 Blood pH raises about 745 0 Causes 0 Causes 0 Hypoventilation less 0 Hyperventilation too much breathing and exhalation breathing exhaling more 0 Pneumonia emphysema 002 than normal 0 higher 002 gt higher H2003 gt 0 Stress anxiety higher H 0 lower 002 gt lower H2003 gt o Decrease H in blood by adding lower H bicarbonate ions decrease 002 0 Increase H in blood by adding concentration by inhaling more carbonic acid 0 Increase 002 by placing paper bag over mouth and nose concentrates COZ inside paper bag moter 3 The Chemical Building Blocks of Life 0 Molecules two or more atoms stuck together 0 Two subcategories of molecules 0 Micromolecules small molecules H20 0 Macromolecules big molecules composed of many micromolecules I Carbs proteins lipids nucleic acids 0 Carbs and Proteins o Carbs composed of simple sugars I Simple sugars building blocks for carbs ie glucose for energy I Starchglycogen store energy I Cellulosechitin structural support 0 Proteins are the most diverse of the macromolecules 0 Most proteins are enzymes help quicken chemical reactions 0 Amino Acids building blocks of proteins I 20 Amino Acids I We get our amino acids from eating plants I Plants make more amino acids than we do 0 Nucleic Acids and Lipids 0 DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid I Blueprint of life contains all info to construct an entire organism I Encodes genes 0 Genes piece of DNA that codes for a protein 0 RNA Ribonucleic acid I Used for gene expression 0 Gene expression when a gene is transcribedtranslated o Transcription DNA used to produce RNA 0 Translation RNA used to produce proteins 0 Nucleotide building blocks of DNARNA o Nucleus contains the most DNA and RNA in our cells 0 Lipids Hydrophobic molecules nonpolar I Fats store energy I Phospholipids form cell membranes I Steroids include cholesterolsex hormones estrogen testosterone etc o What are Carbohydrates made of 0 Starch polymers many monomers example of polysaccharide I Monomers building blocks of polymers I Monosaccharide simple sugar 0 Two monosaccharides disaccharide 0 Many monosaccharides polysaccharides I Animals cannot make starches but can digest them 0 What are Proteins Made of 0 Two amino acids dipeptide 0 Many amino acids polypeptide chain I Peptide refers to a chain of amino acids held together with peptide bonds Polar covalent bonds link amino acids together Proteins usually made with twomore polypeptide chains I Myoglobin one polypeptide transportsstores oxygen in our muscles I Hemoglobin four polypeptide chains transports oxygen002 in our blood Proteins with one polypeptide Polypeptide Proteins with twomore polypeptides NOT polypeptides O O O O o What are DNA and RNA made of 0 Two nucleotides dinucleotide 0 Many nucleotides polynucleotides DNA and RNA What are Lipids Made Of 0 Triglycerides fats I Not all lipids have fatty acids in their structures all have hydrocarbon chains I CH and CC are two nonpolar covalent bonds that are hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain I Carbonxyl group is acidic How to Make a Polymer o HO Hydroxyl component of water 0 Water must be removed and covalent bond is created as a result I This is called dehydration synthesis I Water is lost to create covalent bonds between two molecules How to Break Apart a Polymer 0 Water must be added sometimes I Hydrolysis covalent bonds broken by adding water to two molecules to create smaller molecules Monomers of Carbs 3 Carbon Sugar Glyceraldehyde 5 Carbon Sugars Ribose Deoxyribose Carbons numbered in clockwise order from the first oxygen I Identification of functional groups easier this way 0 6 Carbon Sugars Glucose Fructose Galactose I These are lsomers compounds that are composed of the same number of the same atoms but arranged differently in space How Disaccharides Form Dehydration synthesis is used to make sucrose table sugar from fructose and glucose 0 Glycosidic link covalent bond between monosaccharides o Glycosidic link unique to sugars o Maltose is found in germinating grains 0 Lactose milk sugar glucosegalactose Some Important Polysaccharides o Startches and Glycogen made of many glucose molecules I Both store energy 0 Starch energy in plants I Two types of starch amylose and amylopectin o Amylopectin is branched while amylose is not 0 Glycogen stores energy in liver and skeletal muscle cells animal starch I More branched than amylopectin I Important because it allows amylopectin and glycogen to be broken up into glucose molecules at the same time at different points on the structure 0 Digestion of starches begins in mouth amylase in saliva gt small intestine contains enzyme to break down starches not found in stomach gt glucose gt transported throughout the body through the blood 0 Some Tough Polysaccharides 0 Not all polysaccharides store energy 0 Chitin structural support in anthropods and fungi exoskeletonsexternal shells of lobster crabs etc I Also found in cell walls of fungi I We can digest chitin because of chitinase digestive enzyme found in stomach o Cellulose structural component of plant cell walls 0 Chitin cellulose composed of many glucose molecules I Undigested cellulose fiber 0 Carb Overview 0 Glyceraldehyde 3carbon RiboseDeoxyribose 5carbon Fructose 6 carbon Sucrose FructoseGlucose Maltose 2 Glucose Lactose GalactoseGlucose Starchesglycogen energy storage CelluloseChitin structural support Starches and cellulose in plants Glycogen and chitin in animals OOOOOOOOO To be continued next week
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