CEM 251 Week One Notes
CEM 251 Week One Notes CEM 251
Popular in Organic Chemistry I
Popular in Chemistry
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Struble on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEM 251 at Michigan State University taught by C. Vasileiou in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry I in Chemistry at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
CEM 251 Week One Notes Ch 1 amp 2 Organic Chemistry study of carbonbased compounds General Chem Summary A39V39CAN 12C6 AM Atomic Mass number of protons of neutrons ANAtomic Number of protons of electrons 14C6 isotope of C has 2 extra neutrons Isotopes 1H1proton 2H1deuterium 3H1tritium Charged Atoms Ions positivecation take away and e negativeanion add e Electrons responsible for forming bonds NaOH empty space on Na that can accept e electrons move from neg charge or pair of e to a positive charge or empty space Orbitals place where e are allowed to be wave function sp d forbitals mostly focus of s and p in organic chem 2 e per orbital SOrbital sphere no nodes POrbitals figure 8 shape node in middle Px Py and P2 orbitals 6 electrons in entire p orbital First shell one sorbital 2 electrons Second shell two sorbitals two times 3 porbitals 8 electrons Electron Configuration o Rule 1 Aufbou Building up lower to higher 1s gt2s2 gt2p6 gt3s2 gt3p6 gt4s2 fof7 2of7 Rule 2 Only 2 e per orbital Rule 3 Hund s Rule put one e in each orbital before pairing Valence Electrons electrons in outermost shell Octet Rule most atoms would like to have electron configuration of a noble gas with 8 valence electrons Heteroatom anything but Carbon or Hydrogen Halogens 7 valence electrons very reactive Valence of electrons an atom needs to gain nonmetals or lose metals to get to the full octet Atom Valence gt of bonds to be neutral C 4 H 1 O 2 N 3 Halogens 1 Bonds Ionic Bonds NaCI Na 11 e loses electron gt Na Cl gains electron gt Cl Covalent Bond Electron Sharing non polar if electronegativity is similar non polar CH3 C and H have similar electronegativity so they equally share electrons polar if one is more electronegative than the other 39 H20 NH3 Representation of Structure Lewis Dot Structure CH4 H HigiH H H20 HQH NH3 HN39H 30f7 Kekule Structure c Condensed Structure CHg CHzCHzCH3 Stick Structure OH OKOjNH N O OCH 39 N02 N loses electrons uses them to form 2nd double bond Q N Q o xr N Formal Charge of valence electrons of electrons in lone pairs of shared electrons N02 FC5O41 2 e formal charge of 1 1 e radical no charge Carbon 4 bonds to be neutral NEVER MORE 3 bonds lt 9 9 3 bonds quot0 lum pm 3 bonds lonc pmr 3 bonds 39 unpaired electron carhocatmn wrbaniun carbon radical Hydrogen one bond ONLY Oxygen 2 bonds to be neutral lone pairs can be used to make third bond 3 bonds O nquot O pmilix c formal charge 3 bonds I lonc pair 1 bond 10 negative l39urmul charge I bond 3 lone pairs Nitrogen 3 bonds to be neutral use lone pair to make 4th 4 bonds KN r 1 N ur N NM39HIH HHI39U t39H39 J hums 2 bonds uncommon Halogens F Cl Br I 1 bond to be neutral ZCl H lone pairs can make 2nd bond but it is less common than N or O Atoms gt Molecules Molecular Orbitals Types of Bonds Single bonds sigma bonds 0 bond Doubletriple bonds pi bonds rtbonds 4of7 50f7 Sigma Bonds 2 ways by overlap of 2 sorbitals sorbital sorbital exH H N Q Ca Q c1 9 3 a a uw ond by headon combination of 2 porbitals porbital porbital l lmdun m crlap gt a a mud Pi Bonds One way by sideon combination of porbitals w v w Shimmns nu39rlap gt a It ix md Organic Bonds single double triple Single Bonds H H 109 5quot I Tetrahedral gt H C H 4 equivalent bonds 1 I 4 equivalent orbitals H WI H l Why are the bonds identical hybridization combining orbitals Ener ll gy all 4 valence electrons need to be mixed 2p 9 9 sp3 orbital makes it so that A A SpJ theyareall equal energy if an atom only has single bonds it is sp3 sp3 Carbon any C H bond s sp3 any C C bond sp3 sp3 generalize O N with only single bonds sp3 Double Bonds planar molecules always one sigma bond one pi bond H H agzpibond sigma bond hybridization of 2s and 2p orbitals 139 1 2p 2p 1 1 spquot hybrid 25 H 4 lxlx any double bonds sp2 60f sp3 Carbon sigmabond sp3 sp3 7of7 Triple Bonds one sigma bond 2 pi bonds planar and linear A 2p 1 2p Hybridimhon 1 I Sp 25 Be Be excited state sp hybridized Practice sp2 sp3
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