Week 4 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Birth Complications Post mature infants still not born 2 weeks past the due date 40 weeks 0 5 6 of births include post maturity 0 When in too long placenta functioning diminished less amniotic uid 0 Larger baby more difficult delivery 0 Longer the baby is in there more likely to aspirate meconium baby s first poop 0 So usually most doctors will induce labor I Pressured to induce staring 21 weeks After Birth the infant Apgar test used to assess newborn status by checking 0 Appearance color I Make sure pinkish and not blue or pale in color I O 1 or 2 scale for each category and 2 is the best I If baby is blue not enough oxygen 0 Pulse I Over 100 beats per minute is good 0 Grimace re exes I Coughing sneezing and responding to the environment is good 0 Activity muscle tone I Strong vigorous movements is good 0 Respiration I Are they breathing or not 0 Check the APGAR test once after birth and ten again 5 minutes later I This gives us a sign of whether or not to do immediate medical intervention for the child 0 Apgar score of 710 good 4 or lower need medical attention Parenting Styles pg 258259 Dimensions of Child Rearing Acceptance Responsiveness extent of parents support sensitivity to needs warmth and praise o Responsive to children s needs and accepting of who the child is Demandingness Control level of control expectations for compliance 0 Control children s activities and make decisions for them The Four Parenting Styles Demandingness Control affectionate high but reasonable expectations democratic control explain why have rule to get child to comply High Acceptance Low acceptance Responsiveness Responsiveness High Authoritative Authoritariun low warmth high unrealistic expectations very strict rules w no explanations aka drill Sargent Low Demandingness Control Permissive very affectionate low expectations lack of rules structure want to be their child s friend Uninvolved low warmth low expectations neglecting The Four Parenting Styles Outcomes selfcontrolled High Acceptance Low acceptance Responsiveness Responsiveness High Authoritative Authoritarian Demandingness Control Parents self reliant Parents withdrawn anxious Control Parents dependent low in social skills impulsive aggressive disobedient rebellious low in achievement orientation lower academic performance takes a while to figure out what they want to do friendly low selfesteem cooperative lower academic independent performance girls achievement very dependent on oriented parents boys hostile angry de ant Low Demandingness Permissive Uninvolved Parents worst outcomes by age 3 higher in aggression lower academic performance anger depression more likely to be antisocial or deviant asteens Parenting Styles Parent effects model parents in uence how child develops how they turn out Child Effects Model child in uences parents which therefore in uences their parenting style Research Supports Parents Effects Model 0 Longitudinal Studies I Authoritative parents toddlers become more compliant and decrease behavior problems I Authoritarian parents toddlers become more defiant and increase in behavior problems Research also supports child effects model 0 Stubborn impulsive children elicit more punitive coercive parenting I Parents become more lax less affectionate even hostile and uninvolved Transactional Model parents and kids in uence each other 0 Parents appear to have more in uence on kids than kids have on parenting I Becomes more bidirectional as kids age Important Notes 0 Some kids with permissive authoritarian parents develop just fine 0 Parents do not always use one style consistently with all kids and may differ in style from coparent Contextual Effects on Parenting Styles Parenting styles model criticized for focusing mostly on American white middle upper SES families 0 May not apply as well to other groups 0 Successful parenting in uenced by cultural values parenting goals 0 Using style to classify other groups may not work I Authoritative parenting rare outside of US Western cultures which may instead promote inherent authority of parents Showing respect is listening to parents Authoritarian parenting Not exactly many have high warmth too Even within US may be hard to apply model to lower SES or different ethnicities 0 Native American Hispanic American Asian American parents more controlling stress respect for and obedience to authority dependence on family I But this is not detrimental 0 Asian American parents use mostly Authoritarian style I Asian American kids with most authoritarian parents score highest on cognitive tests 0 Many African American mothers especially single less educated demand strict obedience and use coercive physical punishment I Does not increase aggression or antisocial behavior I For African American kinds correlations found between authoritarian parenting and school performance social competence 0 While some parenting styles are less effective there is no style that works for all families in all settings I However authoritative parenting correlated with positive outcomes in all groups studied I Warmth and control best outcomes for most I Uninvolvedneglectful worst outcomes Chapter 5 Infancy Physical Development Infant Re exes Unlearned involuntary response to stimuli Happen when infant is just born 0 See table 53 pg 123 27 different re exes when born and many go away Some re exes stay whole life 0 Ex eye blink re ex Two Categories 0 Survival re exes I Offer protection or satisfy basic survival needs I Examples Breathing eye blink protective of eye Swallowing sucking rooting o Rooting if anything brushes against babies cheek they go toward the side that touched the face so they can suck for food Swimming if you throw newborn in water will move legs and arms around in swim motion and will automatically hold breath o Primitive Re exes I No clear survival value I Examples Babinski re ex stroke bottom of foot fan toes out then back in Grasping re ex put something to palm and will grab o Goes away suddenly at 3 months 0 May persist because allows for bonding to happen Stepping re ex dangle feet then step like walking Moro re ex startle re ex hands go out and back in when startled Infant States Sleeping 0 Born with organized patterns of activity or states different degrees of awareness to internal and external stimuli 0 70 time spent sleeping alert only 23 hours per day I Sleeping period very short I By 37 months most sleep for at least 6 hour stretches at night nap 2 3 times per day I Do not really understand different between night and day I 2 weeks before birth to 2 months after 50 of sleep is REM sleep By 6 months only 2530 is REM sleep I More REM sleep ore brain stimulation and brain development happens Motor Development and Physical Growth 0 Four principles of growth I 1 Cephalocaudal development proceeds from head downward I 2 Proximodistal proceeds from middle of body outward I 3 Hierarchical Integration simple skills develop first then are combined into complex skills I 4 Independence of Systems different body system develop at different rates 0 Motor Development I Compare children to developmental norms typical age range of mastery of skill Learning to sit without supports between 5 8 months and if range is typical development