Week2.pdf Biology 151
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by njaume on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 151 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Marc Wolman, Donna Fernandez, David Abbott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Sept 9 Lecture 2 Macromolecules CarbOthrates polysaccharides Poly many saccharide sugar Polymers of sugars monosaccharide mono one Signature functional groups of sugars Carbonyl CO Hydroxyl COH Especially rich in hydroxyls picture gt Polar and hydrophilic Carbohydrate diversity comes from Kinds of sugars name ends in ose 5 Carbon sugars Ribose Deoxyribose 6 Carbon sugars Glucose fructose galactose Linkages and extent of branching Both of these are polymers of glucose if you break them down you wouldn39t be able to tell a difference Picture starch vs cellulose Chitin polymer of nitrogen containing sugars Used to build cell wall of fungi and the exoskeleton of insects and crabs Functions of sugars Structural Chitin cellulose Energy storage starch glycogen in liver Lipids base molecule of a glycerol fatty acids Fatty acid long chain of 0H hydrocarbon tail bonds Nonpolar and hydrophobic Carboxyl goes from COH to COminus Hplus The Hydrogenplus concentration goes up so the pH goes down which makes this acidic Two common lipids glycerol 3 fatty acids also called a triacylglycerol Ph0 ho id important component of biological membranes Functional group phospate phosphate surrounded by oxygens and two of the oxygens are dissociated and are negatively charged they are polar and hydrophilic Phospholipid is composed of glycerol 2 fatty acids phosphate group Hydrophilic head hydrophobic tails SHORT HAND FOR PHOSPHOLIPID 0 In an aq solution if we have a low ration of phospholipids to water they make micelles tucking hydrophobic portions away from water and hydrophilic portions are facing the water and hydrogen bonding to the surrounding water It looks like 0 with the tails all in and the heads making a circle Proteins amino acids picture R variable group changes depending on type of amino acid can be either nonpolar polar or charged or 20 different amino acids are commonly used and are naturally occurring in proteins picture aaamino acid to know how these behave in water you have to look at the R groups hydrophobic parts are going to fold into the inside the hydrophilic parts are going to move to the outside this is going to determine the final form of the protein because of the way it FOLDS Nature of this defines the structure M Levels of protein structure Primary structure sequence of amino acids Secondary structure associations between nearby amino acids typically hydrogen bonds ex alphahelix gt a coil like structure ex betapleated sheets Lect 3 Sept 11 Proteins continued peptide a polymer with a small number of amino acids less than 30 amino acids polypeptide many amino acids Around 100 Protein structure Primary structure sequence of amino acids Secondary structure the forms in space that the protein takes up ex alpha helix coil ex beta pleated sheet Tertiary structure consider how the protein folds in three dimensional space 3D stabilized by a lot of different bonds Hydrogen bonds hydrophobic interactions lonic bonds Covalent bonds Functional group has to do with covalent bondsquot 3uthdrM SH CysSSCys Quaternary Structure interactions between different polypeptides forming a complex Denaturation unfolding the protein from its 3D shape to 2D this can happen under severe environmental conditions high temp high salt conditions and pH extremes In certain conditions with special proteins this process can be reversed and is called W Nucleic Acids polymers DNA or RNA monomer nucleotide 3 parts 13 phosphate groups pentose 5C sugar ribose for RNA deoxyribose for DNA Nitrogenous base 4 in RNA and DNA sugar phosphate backbone Wavs to find life 1 physical boundary 2 information way to recognize differences 3 Energy to order We need all three of these in order to classify something as some form of early life Life Cell Cell Theorv of Life 1 Cell is the functional unit of life 2 Cells arise only from preexisting cells by division under present day conditions Disorder not life Order life Environment Cytoplasm 39cell body Cytosol amp organelles when putting oil and water together in the same environment they form a boundary between them the boundary is composed of phospholipids where the hydrophobic tails face the oils and the hydrophilic heads face the water the boundary is a monolayer of phospholipids When trying to create a boundary between two parts of water it would be a bilayer of phospholipids Where the hydrophObiC tails don t face the water and the hydrophilic heads face both sides of the water there would be a sealed sphere because you dont want an edge that exposes the tails these spheres can be very large eX Eukaryotic cell large would be 10100 microns micrometerum in diameter um1X1Oquot6 m can be medium size eX prokaryotic cell or large organelle 1um in diameter Small size eX vesicle 50100 nm in diameter 1nm 1X1OA9m A biological membrane CAN NOT just be phospholipids because sugars aren39t able to cross over Biolooical membrane phospholipid bilayer associated proteins this makes up 95 by mass of the membrane First model of membrane phospholipid bilayer and proteins surrounding it like bread on a sandwhich problem with this this model expected that the proteins were hydrophilic but they found out that a large number of these were hydrophobic this doesn39t make sense with this model Second model of membrane early 1970s fluid proteins can move around mosaic model phospholipid bilayer with proteins surrounding it but there are also proteins inside the membrane the protein would be hydrophobic on the inside and hydrophilic on the outside the proteins on the edges were Called peripheral proteins Integral Proteins were the ones that were integrated in the membrane
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