PSYC 2011.11 Day 2 Notes - 9/10/15
PSYC 2011.11 Day 2 Notes - 9/10/15 PSYC 2011
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oona Intemann on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2011 at George Washington University taught by Woodruff, P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
NOTES THURSDAY 91015 Reading for this week Chapter 3 Models of Abnormality Is there mental illness here onaround campus Yes Homeless population has a high level of mental illness Speci cally schizophrenia substance abuse alcoholism Thomas Szasz The Myth of Mental Illness he is wary about our labeling of people as mentally ill Societies invent the concept of mental illness to better control people who upset the social order He does not have many followers who agree with him History of Mental Illness Beginning about 20000 years ago before written accounts but passed down in oral tradition Around this time there was a belief that everything had a soul even nonliving things This is called animism Mental illness was believed to be caused by evil spirits They had taken possession of a person and controlled this person s behavior Evidence exists in skulls we ve found trepanm39ng a hole made in the skull in order to allow evil spirits to escape This continued on until the Romans went into Britain Last known record observation of this practice was only about 2200 years ago It probably killed many people but there is some evidence based on little bits of brain material found that some people actually survived They believed that many types of these spirits can invade the body Ancestors animals murder victims even the gods These spirits entered the body because they were very clever or because the person might lack faith or because magical powers or a shaman or witch or priest Main treatment was exorcism Procedure still used occasionally today within the Roman Catholic church Very long process carried out by the shaman or priest Evil spirits would often identify themselves and they had to be threatened or overwhelmed The Exorcist movie was actually based on a real story in Maryland If an exorcism didn t work then they were ostracized and sent away from town They would probably starve to death be attacked etc Hippocrates during the time of Ancient Greeks and Romans He was a wellknown physician Gave names to medical conditions that we still use today Melancholia depression Dementia away from the mind we still use this term Mania excited movement a person going for a long period of time without sleeping Hysteria refers to uterus of a female uterus could wander along a sexually frustrated body and settle somewhere else to cause great pain These mental illnesses were not caused by the gods or the spirits The problem was the brain one or more of the four uids in the body that he believed were out of balance blood phlegm yellow bile black bile He was almost correct In reality we have an imbalance of brain chemicals or neurotransmitters This results in various mental illnesses He had many remedies that were adopted at that time that were thought to soothe the patient Other early Greek physicians had similar practices Observed the role of mental illness Created remedies that have come back through holistic medicine Ex therapeutic massage exercise baths abstaining from sex and alcohol vegetarianism phlebotomy in this case it was bleeding a person Middle Ages of Western Civilization Catholic church was very powerful had control in education and scientific investigation Religious beliefs of the lay people were filled with superstition and demonology Fear of witches developed you would be persecuted if you were thought to be one Church published handbooks on how to determine if a woman was a witch Was the woman present when there was an unusual event like lightening striking Did she have an unusually shaped mole or freckle They were tortured until they confessed During the Renaissance we were more enlightened Those with mental disorders were mostly cared for at home Some monasteries and hospitals converted into mental hospitals then called insane asylum People became prisoners Henry VIII had St Mary s of Bethlehem converted into a mental hospital He had mental health issues from genetic syphilis The people who lived in the area of the hospital started to form a very specific type of accent Cockney They coined the name of the hospital Bedlam This means pandemonium etc The general public would pay admission to get into the hospital and watch the patients It was like a sideshow There rose the belief in animalz39sm This was the belief that there were great similarities between the mentally ill and animals The insane could not control themselves so they would be treated like animals they had no ability to reason This justi ed beating them and making them fearful Patients slept on straw that wasn t changed very often it got damp and moldy The walls would drip rainwater Patients were often bitten by rats They would be chained to the wall by the ankle or waist Their hands would be bound They were often starved whipped beaten Their caretakers would sell partall of the food that was meant for a patient They were blistered burned with a rod They were given emetics vomit inducers They were given purges causes severe diarrhea King George III of Britain in power during the time of the American Revolution Put in an insane asylum for part of his life biologically caused illness People began getting more help in Britain and France 1796 The Lunatic Asylum at York There was a Quaker woman who was taken in and not permitted to have visitors Died soon after she came The other people in her Quaker meeting community were skeptical Believed it was her treatment that caused it One friend was a wealthy businessman It was transformed into the Retreat at York People were called guests not patients Called of good selfesteem were taught selfcontrol social skills sometimes they would be restrained but only for short periods of time Paris had a psychologist that created conditions that were pleasant with beautiful surroundings for his patients This happened during a time when things were very unstable Paris was having its own revolution The work of Pinel and Tuke became known as moral treatment moral treatment an approach to mental disorder based on kindness or humane care kindness and respect for a mentally ill person It began to be tried throughout Europe and North America The Retreat at York still continues to be used When becoming a doctor you used to followshadow a doctor in the colonies US and would then go overseas to learn more The mental hygiene movement developed as more people were learning about this Dorothea Dix She was diagnosed with TB but was apparently misdiagnosed She immediately stopped teaching went to a woman s hospital for mentally ill She was helping women learn to read and do simple things like sewing that may provide them with some money The conditions people were living under were quite terrible She was involved with the movement to improve these mental hospitals She lived another four decades after her diagnosis Clifford Beers another reformer Came from a wealthy family 1907 wrote an autobiography A Mind That Found Himself Welleducated but developed a mental illness Because of their wealth his family paid to have him put in very fine hospitals He was in three of them before he was finally released He was put in straitj ackets for many hours for minor infarctions They re used for short periods of time now National Committee for Mental Hygiene Set up to educate the public helping families of the mentally ill also helping the mentally ill themselves Now we have NAMI National Alliance on Mental Illness Most areas have a branch of it 19th century changes in how mental illness was perceived in the medical profession Somatogenic mental illness cause was in the body Study of syphilis At this time considered a venereal disease now it s an STD What we know is that in the beginning a patient may have sores or lesions usually on the genitals but it could be the anus or mouth depending on the type of sexual activity that is taking place Untreated a few weeks later a patient heals they develop ulike symptoms After about two weeks they go away Bacteria becomes dominant in the body 2030 years later it can produce symptoms This is called general paresis like dementia There was great shame in having this disease but there was no treatment for it But they knew if you had it then you couldn t get it again KraftEbing German psychologist Book about sexual desires 1906 German bacteriologist Wasserman created a test that made it easier to detect syphilis earlier Arsenic used as a treatment but it worked it s toxic to the body mostly the brain Institution for severely retarded children in Connecticut Without parents permission children were given hepatitis virus so they could be studied Hitler instituted similar practices There are examples throughout history up until the present time Hypnotism People thought the cause of mental illness was psychological Hypnotism in this case became prevalent state of unconsciousness open to suggestion You can in uence a person using this method Can be used to get people to stop smoking Mesmer German physician We get the word Mesmerized from him Believed there was a universal magnetic uid in our body He was fascinated with discoveries of electricity at this time UMF was affected by ocean tides planets If you could restore the magnetic uid by inducing a crisis in the body the person could gain their mental health back He worked rst in Vienna but considered a fake and driven out of the city 1778 set up a clinic in Paris Saw groups of people who were all diagnosed with hysteria Hysteria physical problem without a physical cause it has a psychological cause Patients would sit in a darkened room around a large tub that was lled with water and there were iron lings that were oating on top of the water Series of iron rods that were sticking out of this tub They were used by the patients to touch the part of the body that was affected A certain number of sessions would bring the body back into balance Mesmer wore a cape he would hold a rod and he had music came from live musicians He was inducing a hypnotic state for people Some patients would begin to tremble and shake Later they would feel better He called it mesmerism Commission was put together to see what he was doing Ben Franklin was one of the members The commission did not believe in animal magnetism but they didn t question the fact that he was producing cures The technique was re ned and his name was taken away from it to become hypnosis Hypnos is the Greek god of sleep This was well demonstrated in the late 1800s by Charcot neurologist Instructor at the University of Paris Medical School Doctor of the nervous system With their permission he made use of the patients and did experiments He would use hypnosis to distinguish a disorder that was hypogenic from one that was somatogenic If you take the symptoms away it meant that it was a disorder that came from the mind A very famous person came to do a fellowship under Charcot Sigmund Freud Freud returned to Vienna after learning hypnosis Joined Doctor Joseph Breuer had encouraged Freud and helped pay for some of his medical education Breuer as part of his therapy for people with hysteria was able to through hypnosis take away their symptoms Freud tried this but was not very good at it He found that you could have a person partially reclining on a couch and without hypnosis could speak about whatever was on their mind Beginning of talking therapy for psychoanalysis All psychiatrists must know some neurology It s the psychiatrist who has the power of the prescription pen Some psychiatrist see patients only for 15 minutes and can still prescribe them medication Clinical psychologists graduate school dissertation supervised internship Then the individual can take a licensing exam to practice psychotherapy They cannot write prescriptions except in New Mexico and Louisiana But it means the clinical psychologist has to take courses in pharmacology Also in most states they cannot admit a person to a mental hospital Could also become Psy D Psy Doctor Doctor of Psychology difference is that you don t have to do a dissertation and you get many more clinical hours of practice You still take a licensing exam Then you can collect from healthcare companies Psychoanalyst People who are usually psychiatrists or clinical psychologists occasionally a clinical social worker a doctor and once they have all their traininglicense they apply to learn the techniques of psychoanalysis Usually these are Freud s methods but could be Yeun s or Adler s They have to take classes and psychoanalyze themselves Fewer and fewer people are doing this today because they re much more focused on the physical and biochemical Counselor of Psychology They have a doctorate as well but usually they don t deal with very serious mental disorders Much more likely to be doing family therapy couples therapy etc Clinical social worker or psychiatric social worker Twoyear program leading to a masters Most mental health workers are clinical social workers BUT they cannot admit patients to hospitals and they cannot prescribe Psychiatric nurse practitioner Masters in psychology Usually hospital or clinicallybased Paraprofessionals Could be people with a high school education or undergraduate school or with a graduate degree Work in places like halfway houses where people spend time adjusting to living in a community Someone who does counseling in the area of abortion or reproduction Someone who works on a mental ward with patients etc or as a psychological aid pay not as good Since 1960s push to deinstitutionalized mental patients and get them into the community Has not worked very well Census was around 600000 before for institutionalized people and now it s about 50000 BUT we have so many people that are homeless and mentally ill who are in prison and are mentally ill or who are just living in terrible conditions where they get some money because they re disabled but there s no one there to look out for them Community Mental Health Act 1963 Pushed by President JFK His sister Rosemary who was borderline retarded Her father had her undergo a prefrontal lobotomy without telling anyone else in the family he was afraid she would become sexually promiscuous For the rest of her life she had to live in a nursing home JFK wanted to do something to help these people Every community would have a community mental health center to keep them from being hospitalized or alone BUT there are not enough of these centers not enough funding Wellintentioned but never worked Research Methods Most Widely Used in Abnormal Psychology Case Study Physicians have used this in describing mental diseases but in psychology the case study is based on clinical data Could be observation classrooms workplace etc psychological tests learn how to give ink blot tests IQ tests personality tests getting good biographical information from the individual school records job evaluations it means getting to know the patient very well in a clinical setting could require a very long time can be expensive Very helpful in studying rare or unusual phenomenon Disadvantages a patient may leave out information to share with the interviewer might not remember specif1c incidences distortion selectivity susceptible to bias lack of repeatability often hard to generalize from a single case study Advantages might help to generate a hypothesis about a mental illness Freud wrote extensively collective works take up 23 volumes But there are only a few of his case studies and for most people are very interesting rat man wolf man Little Hans One very famous case study by the NIMH Identical quadruplets who had schizophrenia First studied in 1962 when they were in their 20s and then again in 1987 Rare to be able to study multiples with mental illness Something like that can lead you to hypothesize that there must be some form of genetic component in this Multiple personality disorder now called Dissociative Identity Disorder often studied in case studies You have a primary personality and then sub personalities Could be male or female young or old C orrelational Method Examines the relationship between two sets of factors to determine if they re associated Depend on a very useful statistic numerical index of the degree of relationship Correlation coefficient indicates how strongly two variables are related and if that relationship is positive or negative Positive correlation indicates a direct relationship between two variables so a high score on X is associated with a high score on Y and low for both There is a positive correlation between one s high school GPA and the college GPA in general people who do well in high school tend to do well in college Negative correlation is an inverse correlation between two variables if a person scores high on X they ll score low on Y in most college courses there s a negative correlation between how frequently students miss class and how well they perform on exams If a correlation is negative a minus sign is always put in front of the coefficient If it s positive there s either no sign or a plus sign ex 90 90 or just 90 What if you have 40 It s less than chance so there s not very much you can conclude about that This method is commonly used in abnormal psych to pair people with a disorder with normal people who don t have generalized anxiety You can then measure their physiological responses if they re put together Then you would pair this with a group of normal people who you would put under stress You would look to see how similar these two responses were Watch out for causation high correlation does not mean one thing caused the other Correlation is NOT causation Ex There is a positive correlation between the length of a child s foot and the child s vocabulary Is one causing the other Of course not but it is still an observed correlation True Experiment The only thing that will give you direct causation is a true experiment This is where an investigator will manipulate a variable that is a factor under very carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in the second variable Psychologists depend on this more than any other Experiments nd out whether changes in one variable X causes change in another variable Y X is always the independent variable therefore Y is always the dependent variable Independent variable what the researcher manipulates Dependent variable depends on the independent variable Big Pharma pharmaceutical companies are looking at to see if Alzheimer s can be slowed down Experimental group and control group They need to be closely matched in how far along they are in the disease One group gets the medication and one group gets a pill that looks like the pill but isn t placebo e ect If you see a dramatic difference in the experimental group you can say that medication made a difference in prolonging the memory of the person Placebo could also have an effect people have thought they were injected with heroin when it was saltwater