Lecture 3&4 notes
Lecture 3&4 notes Forest and Wildlife Ecology 360
Popular in Extinction of Species
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecilia Moog on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Forest and Wildlife Ecology 360 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Marcus Peery in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Extinction of Species in Agriculture and Forestry at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Zoology 360 Extinction of Species Lecture 3amp4 What Good is a Wild Species Guest Lecturer Dr Temple Utilitarian Values make a species worthwhile as a means to help humans applies to very few species Goods Species recognized asprovides goodscommodity gt Species used as good are easy to assign a value however they make up a small part of the world species population Services Species performs function useful to humans gt Species that decompose pollinate control pests and contribute to element cycles such as the nitrogen cycle provide these services without cost however the estimated value of such services is set at approximately 33 trillion annually Information Helps humans gain insightknowledge gt Discoveries that improve human life are rooted in wild species observation Biotechnology relies on the genetic information from wild species and symbiotic use is pervasive in our cultures These values have an effect on us as evidenced by the existence of the department of natural resources and people s investment in valuable species however non resources are still an issue for conservationists gt Valuable species can still go extinct if the cost of conservation outweighs the return we get from them That is utility does not insure security Intrinsic Values make a species worthwhile in its own right Controversy intrinsic values can only be placed on rational individuals philosophical statement Individual organisms share common biological goals such as growth survival and reproduction which are independent of human goals If species have intrinsic value it then becomes unethical for humans to let them go extinct ie an economic issue becomes an ethical issue Biophilia Hypothesis Attraction to wild species is in our genes Edward Willson Harvard Values Monetary amount assigned to species based on people s opinions Commodity What people are willing to pay when there is a market for something Option What people are willing to pay to guarantee the option of finding future use for a species Contingent What people are willing to pay for opportunity to use species in the future Existence What people are willing to pay to keep species from going extinct without ever actually seeing it or using it emotionally based Bequest What people are willing to pay to assure that the future generation has an opportunity to make use of a species For wild species ignorance is an obstacle and the irreversibility of extinction argues for a precautionary approach which is difficult to economically quantify Interdependence of Species loss of one species causes the loss of other species cascade effect Safe Minimum Standard bio diversity is of incalculable value and should be conserved unless cost of doing so is so great that it cannot be toleratedafforded Types of Ethics Anthropocentric species are resources that benefit humans we are paramount selfish Stewardship humans have responsibility to preserve nature as long as humans aren t harmed religious basis Biocentric respect the rights in individuals of other species Ecocentric humans are coequals with other species and they should not be damaged by humans ecologicalevolutionary basis species focus Extinct no member of a species is alive anywhere on the planet to the best of our knowledge Extinct in the Wild species only alive in captivity Locally ExtinctExtirpated species no longer found in an area where it used to exist however it is still found elsewhere Ecologically Functionally Extinct species exists in such low numbers that it no longer has a significant impact on other species The normal calculated extinction rate is 110 species per year 00001 with the current calculated rate being 1001000x higher Mass Extinction elevated extinction rates lead to sharp gt75 decrease in diversity in short period of time lt2 million years Causes asteroids climate change ocean anoxia volcanic activity Extinction rates are greater now than during events of the past however the magnitude has not reached those levels If these rates are sustained magnitude will be reached in 2002000 years which is much less time that previous mass extinctions Background extinction rates are only estimations and current rates are best guesses Tool making and cultural evolution allowed humans to become super predators and exploit any prey rendering many species unable to adapt and they therefore become extinct For example when humans came to North America they caused the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna something that was mirrored on other continents at the time Trends in the current mass extinction include habitat loss introduction of invasive species over exploitation climate change pollution and disease Endangered species are concentrated in the developing world