A222 Molecular and Cell Biology (Problem 1 - 5)
A222 Molecular and Cell Biology (Problem 1 - 5) A222
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Soh Yi Ling on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to A222 at Republic Polytechnic taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cell Biology in Applied Science at Republic Polytechnic.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Problem 1 Smaller Pieces of Me 1 Atom Molecule Organellesl Cell Tissue Organ Organ systemDOrganism Characteristics of life They are able to reproduce They are able to respire They can grow 2 Organelles are specialized structure that is found in the cell They have a speci c function 3 For sickle cell anaemia it is a genetic and hereditary disease As we obtain recessive pair of allele from our parents and we know this pair of allele is found in our gene Gene lead is found in the DNA and DNA is essential for the synthesis of protein Since we have the recessive allele which give rise to quotfaulty DNAquot and result our body to synthesis haemoglobin 5 Which result in our body to produce the wrong proteinhaemoglobin s and this protein caused our cell to be sickle shaped An animal cell diagram pi niig i ti I H al i WI it Eili39iwi39md i39iii r1 ly i113 Golgi Ealgmi apparatus aliasinglies nucleolus F Liiigl l ER 39 endoplasmic 39 reticulum c c Eii39iliii th ER nnnnnn m3 rib EIQIMJEE Er tri l Each posed of E micrututiulletripxlets mieratulbuiea aalll plaaima i 7 i a m H a nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn NNNNNNNNNN g giggillasm memtirana g quot w p ritmaama Egili a rmaiirumg 2am 39 quot Organelles Function Nucleus Control cell activities Cytoplasm Hold the organelles together Rough endoplasmic Synthesis protein reticulumRER Ribosome Synthesis protein Found in RER Cell membrane Control the movement of materials in and out of the cell Mitochondria Produce energy for the cell Centrioles Help to manage the chromosomes during cell division Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Detoxi cation SER Synthesis of steroids and sex hormones Golgi apparatus Pack the protein produce by RER into vesicles and sent it out of the cell Vacuole Small and numerous saclike structure found in the cell Store nutrients and minerals for the cell 4 Central dogma is the explanation of the ow of genetic material within a biological system 5 Eukaryotic cell organelles have membrane surrounding it on the other hand prokaryotic cell organelles does not have membrane surrounding it Problem 2 A Simple Solution 1Ce membrane made up of 2 phospholipid layers proteins and carbohydrate 2Ce membrane is selectively permeable which only allows certain substance to enter the membrane 3Ony small and nonpolar substances are able to pass through the membrane freely 4Transmembrane protein are protein that spans through from one end of the membrane to the other end of the membrane 5 Passive transport Movement of substances without the usage of energy ATP molecule 6Active transport Movement of substances against the concentration gradient with the usage of energy ATP molecule Passive transport Name De nition Simple diffusion Movement of substances down the concentration gradient Just move into the cell without any protein assistance No energy used Facilitated diffusion Use a special carrier protein to transport large substances into the cell No energy used 7Rate of diffusion is affected by the steepness of concentration gradient size of molecule and temperature 8Hypertonic solution means that the concentration of solute in the solution is higher than the surrounding High concentration of salt in the solution Low concentration of water in the solution Water in the cell move out 9Hypotonic solution means that the concentration of solute is lower than surrounding Lower concentration of salt in the solution Higher concentration of water in the solution Water move into the cell 10 Isotonic solution means that the concentration of the solute in the solution is the same as the surrounding Ways of entering the cell through cell membrane 1 Diffusion Only small and nonpolar substances can easily diffuse through the cell membrane Facilitated diffusion 1Channel protein A stimulus molecule will be bonded to the channel protein and result in the protein to create a channel to allow polar molecules to pass through No energy is used as the molecules will diffuse into the cell through the channel The reason why there is stimulus molecule attached to it because there is a need for the cell to gain ions from the surrounding and the surrounding has higher concentration of ions Example lon channel 2Carrier protein A large molecule will bind to the carrier protein after that the carrier protein will change it shape to bind with the large molecule No energy is being used in this process Diagram showing carrier protein F5 5 j LITErem iDiliE39iF us Q O OPTIlD NEji REWIMD STDP I IPELA39Y Summary of facilitated diffusion CWTDPLesM a A channel pratein purple has a channel thr uigh which water m iecu es er a Epeicific solute can pass Carrier pretein 39 Illa 3 carrier prDI Ei talltezrnraftses vetwuelen cnf rmaltigvr is mis tling a solute actress the rnegrnljrlane as the shape caf the protein changes The jjrctteairt claim tria sp rt the salute in neither directi m 39With the net m eemer nt being drawn the canc Entr a tiEt n gradient cat the salute Membrane protein 1lntegral membrane protein Hydrophobic amino acid is submerged in the bi lipid layer on the other hand hydrophilic amino acid will face the aqueous environment It functions is to transport hydrophilic and polar substance into the cell 2Peripheral membrane protein Protein that is found on the surface of the cell membrane Normally it is used for identi cation purpose P0rt539 Some transport proteins bind and transport molecules selectively The reason is that they do not have channel or pore to aid them in transporting substance across the cell membrane Only for carrier protein which bind to the molecules by changing shape 1Symport Transport 2 molecules in the same direction Example Na glucose transporter Secondary Active transport As there is higher concentration of sodium ions outside and it will diffuse in and these provide energy for glucose to go against the concentration gradient 2 Uniport Transport one solute molecule Example Glucose transporter Passive transport 3Antiport Transport 2 molecules in 2 opposite direction Example Na and K ATPase transporter Active transport Sodium potassium pump 3 sodium ions will be bonded to the transporter after that a phosphate group from ATP will be bonded to the pump and cause the pump to change its shape After that the 3 sodium ions will move out of the pump to the surrounding and the phosphate group from ATP is still bonded to the pump The pump will have high af nity for potassium ions and after which 2 potassium ions will be bonded to the pump After that the phosphate group will leave the pump and cause the pump to revert back to its original shape Primary active transport Uses ATP directly to transport substance against the concentration gradient Secondary active transport Does not use ATP directly to transport substance against the concentration gradient Example of secondary active transport Na glucose transporter Previously 3 sodium ions are pumped out of the cell using primary active transport This result in the surrounding concentration of sodium ions to increase In order to move glucose from lower concentration to higher concentration the transporter take in both sodium ions and glucose It makes use of diffusion of sodium ions to push glucose molecule against the concentration gradient ORS mechanism When we have diarrhoea the main reason is that our transport protein on the intestinal cell is malfunction and this causes the ions to move out of the intestinal lumen together with water After drinking ORS the saltsions will diffuse into the cells and this will result in the water potential in the intestinal cell to be lower in concentration After that water will diffuse into the intestinal cells and it will also diffuse into the bloodstream together with the ions and after a period of time our body is rehydrate It works by activating the Na glucose transporter and when this is activated sodium is being pumped into the cell and this results in the concentration of Na in the cell being regulated and the water potential decrease and water is moved into the cell and eventually the cell is rehydrated Problem 3 Hello Hello Who s Calling Summary of mode of transport system Nearby cells Itself All ii i Wings if39li llai ill signalling cell target cell target cells membrane buund gig me molecule Long distance receptor ta Inge cell synapse tar ketrceflll cell I1 neurotransmitter I a sandy bloodstream target cell i 1 Contactdependent Make use of the structure found on the surface of the plasma membrane Require cell to be in direct membranemembrane contact 2 Paracrine Paracrine signaling depends on signals that are released into the extracellular space and act locally on neighboring cells 3 Autocrine The cell release signal molecules after that the molecules will bind back to the same cell receptor 4 Synaptic Synaptic signaling is performed by neurons that transmit signals electrically along their axons and release neurotransmitters at synapses which are often located far away from the cell body 5 Endocrine Endocrine signaling depends on endocrine cells which secrete hormones into the bloodstream that are then distributed widely throughout the body 6 Many of the same types of signaling molecules are used in paracrine synaptic and eno crine signaling the crucial differences lie in the speed and selectivity with which the signals are delivered to their targets 7 Function of receptor is to detect signal and ligand 8 Ligand signal molecule 9 The function of signal molecule is to amplify the signal and transmit the signal within the cell Contact Paracrine Autocrine Synaptic Endocrine dependent For nearby cell For nearby For nearby For cells that For cells that cell cell are far away are far away Require to Release Release Transmit Secrete membrane signal signal electrical hormones membrane contact molecule molecule to signal through to nearby itself through bloodstream ceH axon Does not need Require Require Require Require signal molecule signal signal signal signal molecule molecule molecule molecule Summary of secondary messaging Intracellular messaging 39 1 riF E f iiiljf l i l plasma membrane of target cell INTR AC ELLU LAB SIG39NALING PROTEINSquot quot EFT metabolic gene regulato ry cytoskeletal protein protein 1 Intracellular protein is needed to amplify the signal and make the signal quotlouderquot to the cell 2 Epinephrine adrenaline It is responsible for ght or ight situation It will cause our body to produce more glucose and release it to the bloodstream Secretion of adrenaline effect MODEL EPENIEPHIREHNIE T Epinephrine lbinds to receptor Tra Sim ssion of message fraim celll s u lrf39ace Figure x l 7 B39iD39iIOgiCEII Sciemcee 20053 Pea rsoin Prentice lHaII Int Ampllificat ion Amlpllificatioln Amipllification Almipmification Flgure 1526 Molecular C39s Biclogy Sixth Edition 320013WI39Ir e sal I Epineph ri39ne 2 Activtion if G protein 3 AM P protein kinase A Amplification pinephrine ii 7 lt k a le i D 7 7 i Acienylyl cycle5e cataiyze s fo rm atian of CAMP 4 ctivation of CAMP dependent Activation of phospahoryllase 6 Activation of phespxharyllase Fquot Pro dl ulcti of gii u cose fro m g chog e n 1 0 10 M Ardenyliyl cycllase CA MiP 39il 0 5 M Protein kinase Activated e n zyrne Product TheE ESiia diagram is lack of step 5 from diagram 1 1 Phosphorylase kinase activate glycogen phosphorylase that convert glycogen into glucose Recruiting lymphocytes 1 The injured site will release a chemical called cytokine ligand and after that the signal molecule will move to the endothelial ceThis form of signalling is paracrine signalling 2 After that the receptor found on the cell membrane will detect the signal molecules and after the intracellular signalling molecule will transmit and amplify the signal within the cell 3 After that the effector protein is activated and it will alter the gene expression 4 This result in the cells to produce a kind of protein called selectins on the cell membrane and the selectins will cause the lymphocytes to float along the walls of the blood vessel and squeeze through the vessel wall when is it possible 5 The endothelial cell is not affected by the movement of lymphocytes l r t i Example of contactdependent signalling How selectins float along the vessels walls 6 Lipid based hormones does not need any special protein on to transport the hormones into the cell Problem 4 Organelles CreeeSeetien ef an Animal Cell 5 cell Membrane eentmsume E E Lyeeeeme j Clit li39a m Nucleus Hui1E1 ER I Hueleelus I f I Emeeth EH liluelear I I Membrane E Vacuum Eibesemes Eeli Beau I M39tmmwmquot iEnchantedLearningcum Cell membrane 1 It controls the movement of substance entering and leaving the cells 2 Contain numerous proteins that assist in its function Lysosome 1 Ingest faulty and dying organelle 2 Lysosome also kills bacteria by digesting it 3 The interior side of the lysosome is acidic and have a pH of 48 4 Inside contains acidic hydrolytic enzymes hydrolase enzymes that are commonly used for hydrolysis 5 Since most of the organelles is made up of biomolecules such as proteins carbohydrates and lipids Basically together with water and the hydrolytic enzymes the biomolecules found in the organelles will be hydrolysis 6 Uncontrolled release of lysosome contents will cause the cell to die necrosis 7 Commonly known as the quotcleanup crewquot of the cell Anamyr f the Lameme LipiEll layer H1 m39 i 39Eil emanated Membrane F39UF39E 1 22 mg nglpnrt Proteins Mix Ire Nucleus 1 Most obvious organelle in eukaryotic cell 2 Enclosed by two membranes and it communicate with the cytosol via numerous nuclear pores 3 Consist of DNA that is needed to during the synthesis of protein 4 Control most of the cellular activities like cellular activities and cell reproduction 5 Separate the cell DNA molecules from cytoplasm Nucleolus 1 Synthesis ribosome that is needed during protein synthesis Nuclear membranenuclear envelope 1 Consist of two membranes Outer membrane and inner membrane 2 Outer membrane is linked to rough endoplasmic reticulum 3 Inner membrane consist numerous pores that is linked to the outer membrane 4 The pores only allow certain substance to enter and leave nucleus 5 The membrane consist of double bilipid layers 6 Hold the contents of the nucleus together 7 Control the movement of substances in and out of the nucleus Vacuole 1 It is a water lled structure there are numerous vacuole in animal cell whereas plant cell only has one central vacuole 2 It is a storage area containing food and other materials that is needed by the cell Mitochondria singular Mitochondrion plural 1 Produce energy for the cells through aerobic respiration with oxygen 2 Known as the powerhouse of the cell 3 Inner membrane contain numerous fold known as cristae Golgi body Golgi apparatus 1 Pack proteins that are produced by endoplasmic reticulum into vesicles after that excrete out of the cell 2 Synthesis lysosome 3 In the Golgi apparatus there are uids in it and this uid consists of biomolecules such as proteins lipids and carbohydrate 4 Commonly known as the quotmailroomquot of the cell 5 Package of macro molecules that is needed for excretion Ribosome 1 Free ribosome function is to assemble protein that is for the usage that is within the cell 2 Ribosomes found on rough endoplasmic reticulum assemble proteins that are to be excreted out of the cell Endoplasmic reticulum 1 Network of passageway that carry protein and other materials from one part of the cell to another Smooth endoplasmic reticulum SER 1 Synthesis lipids 2 Detoxi cation occurs here 3 Steroid hormones is also synthesis here 4 Break down of lipidsoluble toxin in liver cell 5 Control the release of calcium during muscle contraction Rough endoplasmic reticulum RER 1 Contain numerous ribosomes that are needed for the assembly of protein 2 Made up of large subunit and small subunit 3 It is made up of RNA and protein Cytoplasm 1 An area between cell membrane and nucleus 2 Contain many organelles 3 Constantly moving gellike uid 4 Cytosol is the gellike uid substances that consist of proteins and mostly water 5 Cytoplasm consists of both cytosol and organelles Peroxisome 1 Breakdown long chains of fatty acid 2 Our body white blood cell contains hydrogen peroxide and the purpose is to kill bacteria 3 Contain oxidative enzymes that will convert harmful hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water Notes 1 The centrosome is a region the centriole is a structure Like woodlands immigration and checkpoint is the whole area centrosome but the actual checking is at a booth that is like the centrioles 2 The centrioles are the nucleation zone for assembly of microtubule proteins into formation of the spindle that moves chromosomes If you have someone with a flag and everyone rallies around him then he becomes a quotzone of nucleationquot Centrioles are such zones of nucleation 3 Liposome arti cially prepared vesicles with lipid bilayer Can be created through sonication using of sound to disturb the particleNormally used for drug administration purpose 4 Phospholipid fat and steroid belongs to lipid family 5 Amphipathic molecule Molecule with polar end and hydrophobic end 6 When phospholipid layer is in water they will orientate themselves to form micelles or bilayer 7 Endocytosis and exocytosis are process in which cell obtain substance through folding of plasma membrane 8 Endocytosis is taking in large molecules into the cell through the folding of membrane or engul ng the molecules as shown on the below diagram Outside of the cellleytoplasm End rmiiij F39hagqcytg i F39il39uai39cyllusri HEEEpt TUMEIjIEft d i rnnhryrmir i i wlkliyrn39iialu II quotf Fl h 39 39 39 L 4 W trlu IEI39aIIIE wtul ui 9 Exocytosis the removal of large molecule from the cell through engul ng or folding of membrane CytoplastOutside of the cell 39r39Ilelr smvheaimd ml which Hummus a elm 43 ngmu liuu r I lt lfr39 uv th uzlmtl palm 117111 39 m lflljll nllgll39 lllpjirl ia accretion EGHETI39IWTWE EEE HETEDH iil irngulalml n membrane fusion quot v r 1 plume membrane nna39l39iail39gr synlhaalmd plasma mern brew protein E YTUEGL Ignml unh a humana r Jarl i 39ll r n l ldi galgrlu l Irfll39lFlir l lJig39lllj a r 7 i l iiquot RErEULATE V r a 1 I 1 SEERETIQH V l 7 ftlllrlilliiilw l Gnlgunpp ratu agellum r a premium 10 There two kinds of secretion pathway 11 Constitutive secretion is secreting proteins and molecules nonstop regardless of the external conditions 12 Regulated secretion only secretes secretion when there is signal pathway signalling the Golgi apparatus to secrete secretion 13 Endomembrane system processes proteins that are speci ed by their DNA in the nucleus and assembles sterol subgroup of steroids lt sort and ship both products to their nal destinations 14 Subgroup A distinct group within a group 15 Endomembrane system consists of RER SER and Golgi apparatus Fate of protein 1 First DNA coding is code onto RNA after that the RNA will leave the nucleus through the nucleus pore and into cytoplasm then ribosome RER 2 After that ribosome will read the coding of RNA and after that follow the coding to synthesis polypeptide 3 The polypeptide will either move to Golgi apparatus or move to SER to become enzymes in SER 4 After the protein arrived at Golgi apparatus it will either be used to form lysosome or pack into the form of vesicles to be secreted out of the cell Problem 5 Move It Move It 1 Cytoskeleton purpose is to provide structural support for the cell aid the cell in moving and give cells it shapes 2 Cytoskeleton consists of micro lament microtubule and intermediate lament Micro lament I u 41 if 1 n FEW Tr 2711 s 5quot it iquot quotrquot Last 395 ti mL39ar gk r39 bgw 4 Lil3 1 i H i ii Diagram showing distribution of micro lament within the L 1 Found along the plasma membrane 2 It is around 59 nm 3 Made up actin protein 4 It is to provide mechanical strength to the cell 5 Allow the cell to move pseudopodia 6 Connect transmembrane protein cell surface cytoplasmic protein 7 Transmembrane proteins are protein that goes from one side of the protein to the other side of the protein Pseudopodia y n h l1 l I Pseudnpndia right1 m 7 8 Formation of contractile ring Contractile ring consist of micro lament 9 Contractile ring is to separate the two cell during cytokinesis and it is able to do so because the contractile ring is able to generate constricting force to separate the two cells during cytokinesis Contractile ring Hutl u is The nlraalile ring is made up at min protein5 that mntra t to pinch the bell in ll new calls 10 In cells there is severing protein which cut the actin lament if needed 11 In muscle cell myosin interacts with micro lament to allow the muscle to contract to provide energy to run and etc EELAE Filments ntaining aat in an myosin Microtubule Eliiu iin lli i ti a tubulin heterodimer microtubule subunit p rotofilament quot gliluu Eitull QEEEEEEJ I iiaiia11l liufltiui r guru F a lags EEEgEvlggggggg LA 4 4444444 r H W A l 50 n m Figure 161l Molecular Biology nil thle Cell Sale Garland Science 2003 Diagram showing microtubule 1 Largest compared to other component is cytoskeleton and it has a diameter of 25 nm 2 Spread throughout the cell with one end attach to centrosome 3 Consist of tubulin protein Made up of tubulin heterodimer beta tubulin and alpha tubulin 4 In plant cell microtubules are created at many sites scattered through the cell In animal cells the microtubules originate at the centrosome at centrioles 5 Microtubule is normally used to form spindle bres 6 Contain 13 proto laments l E qt rm E gt if r 5 71 s 75 739 a V39hgrnr I flag 173 Iiquot 1 h H L E Jr 1 Hunml dull Jun 7 Err quotquot 1JIHII ilil u Lia heifl c tall z p g V J f 1 1 Finlml a39 39il39l V lili quot quot LIiEuiiJ EJJJJIEL i v a I u A lullll i39lll Dimein 2 L il quoti x a I lt 7 igilr h lr an Wham5E 7 Diagram showing how things move along microtubules 1 The positive end is where the microtubules grow through the polymerisation of tubulin heterodimer monomerbeta subunit are exposed 2 The negative end is where microtubule depolymerisation release of tubulin heterodimer monomer alpha subunit are exposed 3 ATP is needed to activate the motor protein microtubule motors to move along the microtubule 4 There are two kinds of motor protein microtubule motorskinesins and dynein 5 KinesinsMove towards the positive end of the microtubule 6 DyneinMove towards the negative end of the microtubule r quotr 4 4 4 FL 4 i A A r 51 I 394 39 jarx c JLrJu rj inn quot with armsi 1 3 1 I 1 In LEK a A J i r I n I u t w Viquot If 177 39 1 ML 1 7 v 39 H 397 r 7 r r gt 1 H We x7 I aA LI L guy A 1 I A 17 n ifquot 39L 93quot u U 39 quot 39 T 1 39 39 V V a 7 inquot quotJL 3 39 I 39 L V quot a i 1 aIr 1 em or 39 imi 7 7 We 739 39irfl 7 4 19 v f xiia I u 39 v iii 1quot if F 7 j I Emir r r I quot I L tn hiquot 1 HM lrW I r 7 Microtubule is used to form spindle bre during cell division Intermediate lament 1 Provide supporting framework for the cell 2 Needed to form DesmosomeNeeded for cell to cell adhesion 3 The composition of protein may varies Addition of cytochalasin keratins are found in epithelial cells and also form hair and nails Addition gmemslmins form a meshwork that stabilizes the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope neuro laments strengthen the long axons of neurons vimentins provide mechanical strength to muscle and other cells 4 Intermediate lament is around 10 nm Effect of drug v Disrupted microfilaments Dl rupted Mi V Can the cell No No continue to Both microtubule Both microtubule and move and actin are actin are required required Can the cell No No divide cannot form cannot form spindle bers contractile ring Can the No No intracellular cannot form cannot form tracks for transport tracks for the the transport carried out tranSDOI t 1 Vinblastine is a kind of antimicrotubule drug 2 Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cancerous cell 3 Vinblastine prevents the growth of microtubule when microtubule is unable to grow and eventually spindle bre cannot be formed this result in no spindle bre to split the chromosomes This hinders cell division and result in the cell being unable to proceed on with cell division 4 Cytochalasin binds to micro lament and it affect the formation of contractile ring When the formation of contractile ring is affected and this result in cell being unable to split into two distinct cells Movement process Flupetlia La melllip diZLIm r 1 Filopodia Spikelike projections 2 Lamellipodium Sheetlike projections 3 FlagelapuralFagelumSingular The turning of agella will propel the microorganism which allow substances to move forward emquot a t rial EF IEIEQiE l I Him i waxzlmzrlaiwmwmm 4 CiliaHair like structure Cilia will enable cell to move slowly on the object an example will be driving particle laden mucus toward the throat 5 Most of the time micro lament and microtubule will break and form back the same structure The reason can be found in microtubule section l earl any edge Hirer El l l mmewent p Lamellilfitnilia Eul pm ia ctin network til Ad hesin d Fig3quot uniaw Stress fibres quot 9quotquot 5H r t Retracticm bres Nature Reviews Molecular Eel Hialeah
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