BSC 101 Helms Week 4 Lecture Notes 9/8-9/11
BSC 101 Helms Week 4 Lecture Notes 9/8-9/11 BSC 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Hemenway on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 101 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Helms in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
BSC 101 Helms 98911 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 40 Animals Eukaryotic Heterotrophic Obtain energy by consuming something else producer Invertebrates No backbone Sponges Cnidarians Mollusks Vertebrates Only a small portion of animals 0 Chordates fishes amphibians birds reptiles mammals Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 41 Animal Cells Nucleus Membrane bound organelles Plasma membrane Do not have a cell wall Mitochondria Aerobic Cellular Respiration converts sugar to energy making ATP ATP Energy source for M cells 0 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 42 Plants Includes 1 Nonvascular can only be really short 2 Vascular 3 Nonseed 4 Seed Autotrophs Meaning Selffeeding Photosynthesis making their own food using Carbon dioxide and light Evolved from green alga protest Have cell walls made of cellulose Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 43 PhotosynthesisAutotrophs Metabolic Process making sugar Sugar must still be broken down during Aerobic Cellular Respiration in the mitochondria to make ATP Plants must be able to do both photosynthesis and Aerobic Cellular Respiration BSC 101 Helms 98911 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 44 Animal and plant cells are both Eukaryotic and contain many of the same structures 0 True nucleus 0 Organized Membrane System 0 Mitochondria Plants may also have 0 Cell walls made of cellulose Vacuoles used for storing water and minerals Chloroplasts Photosynthesis Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 45 Fungi 0 Do not do photosynthesis Decomposers of living and nonliving things Heterotrophic must consume Critical to nutrient cycling 0 Have cell walls made of chitin chitin is also what makes up the exoskeleton on some invertebrates crabs and lobsters 0 Otherwise have cellular structure more like animal cells 0 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 47 Protists o No evolutionary relationship to the rest of the eukaryotes 0 Some are autotrophic some heterotrophic some unicellular some multicellular Protists consist of Producers Consumers and Decomposers Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 49 Bacteria and Archaea share similar characteristics 0 Microscopic Singlecellular o No internal membrane bound organelles Asexual Prokaryotes play important roles in the ecosystems and human life 0 Negative Diseases 0 Positive Largest photosynthesizers decomposers natural help for eukaryotes Commercial applications Insulin cheese wine Production of antibiotics Produce chemical to kill their rivals BSC 101 Chapter 3 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 51 The lupines in this picture show slight variability in their Color Height Leaves Some of this variation is caused by Alleles Populations contain individuals with different forms of genetic information different form of the same gene For example Genes that encode the assembly of cell walls or chloroplasts Phenotype Outward expression of alleles characteristics that we see physical Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 52 Mutations are changes in DNA sequences Creates new allele Allele can change the phenotype 3 possible effects of new phenotypes 1 Helms 98911 Adaptive Offers differential success increased fitness Fitness The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment Example small changes in genes that code for proteins may lead to large changes in the molecule39s structure or function and affect fitness like those for detecting a wide variety of odors These changes are passed to offspring and descend with the lineage to successive generations BSC 101 Helms 98911 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 53 While Mutation is the ORIGINAL source of all genetic variation alleles get mixed up into new combinations through meiosis This happens for 3 reasons 1 Crossing Over Cut the number of chromosomes in half touch and exchange parts of the chromosome 2 Assortment of Chromosomes Reassembling into four different cells 3 Fertilization Male sperm meets female egg 223 x 223 Meiosis reproductive process in specialized cells that reduces the number of chromosomes in half rearranges its information to create new combinations of alleles and then splits twice to produce four cells Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 54 Gene Flow Movement of alleles between population Can bring out changes in variation between population Dispersal Offspring away from the parent and the parent s population and moving into a new one Migration Physical movement of the organism Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 55 Camouflage coloration in mice light one has better fitness The environment is the determining factor of whether or not the trait will be adaptive For all organisms the current environment that an organism lives in determines Selective pressure environment determines factor whether or not a trait will be adaptive or not Natural Selection Inherited Trait Those who are better adapted will survive Those surviving of a species will pass on certain characteristics to allow their offspring to survive BSC 101 Helms 98911 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 56 An adaptive trait or adaptations increases the organism s ability to survive Whether or not it s adaptive depends on If it increases the organism s ability to survive and reproduce If the environment changes the trait may no longer be adaptive In the figure those factors in the soil are selection pressures Those traits in the seed are inherited in its genotype Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 57 Selection pressures change with the life stages of an organism Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 62 Sexual Selection Favors traits that increase reproductive success even if they decrease survival 2 Forms Rams Males fight for access to females Turkeys Showoffs Female choice Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 63 Coevolution Idea that the interaction between two organisms exerts a selective pressure on each other Example The long curved bill of a sunbird who lives along the tip of South Africa fits perfectly into the long tubular flowers of stickytube heather Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 64 Speciation Process that creates a new species Speciation occurs when Population is separated by something They can no longer interbreed Genetic similarity grows apart Reproductive Isolation Can no longer interbreed Reproductive Barriers Conditions existing preventing interbreeding Two categories 1 Premating Barriers preventing fertilization 2 Postmating Barriers make zygote unable to develop or quotinfertile offspring Hybrid Breeding between two different species
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