Note for Week 3
Note for Week 3 Chem 345
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany Lawler on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 345 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Crouch in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Chemistry 345 Week 3 97 91 1 1 Hydrocarbons 0 Hydrocarbons are compounds made of only carbon and hydrogen 0 Hydrocarbons come in three varieties o Alkanes No double or triple bonds all carbons are saturated o Alkenes Contains doubles bonds but not triple bonds not all carbons are saturated o Alkynes Contains triple bonds not all carbons are saturated 2 Functional Groups 0 Functional groups are atoms or molecules that are not hydrogen and carbon but attach to hydrocarbons 0 Some common functional groups 0 Amines this group contains nitrogen o Alcohols this group contains OH 0 Ethers this group is a single oxygen bonded to two carbons in the middle of a hydrocarbon chain 0 Carbonyl This group is characterized by an oxygen double bonded to a carbon in the hydrocarbon chain 0 Halides Sometimes the halides form a polar bond to a hydrocarbon chains 3 Hydrocarbon shapes 0 Hydrocarbon chains come in two forms Cyclic and noncyclic 0 Cyclic These hydrocarbons form a ring 0 Non cyclic these hydrocarbons do not form rings 0 Cyclic hydrocarbons can have as few as three carbons and as many as possible 0 A special form of cyclic hydrocarbons is formed with six carbons o The ring is called a benzene ring and compounds that contain benzene rings are called aromatics 4 Classifying carbon compounds by functional group 0 Carbon compounds that contain only one type of functional group are mono functional 0 Carbon compounds that contain more than one type of functional group are poly functional 5 Nomenclature Prefixes 0 Hydrocarbon chains are named based on the number of carbons they contain 0 The prefix of the name tells you how many carbons are in the chain 0 Meth one carbon 0 Ethtwo carbons 0 Prop three carbons 0 But four carbons 6 Nomenclature Suffixes 0 Suffixes tell you what type of hydrocarbon the main chain is o ane an alkane o ene an alkene o yne an alkyne 7 Nomenclature substituents 0 Substituents are hydrocarbon chains or functional groups that are attached to the main hydrocarbon chain 0 When naming a carbon compound that contains a substituent there are some general rules to follow 0 Always number the main chain such that the substituents are on the lowest possible numbers 0 Always list the substituents alphabetically in the name 0 Make sure to use prefixes to indicate the number of the same substituents there are 0 Make sure to put a hyphen between the numbers in the name and the letter but a comma between numbers side by side 0 The name of the main chain always comes last 0 There are special cases where the prefixes iso sec and tert are used These cases must be memorized 8 Nomenclature Functional groups 0 When naming a carbon compound with a functional group make sure to add the correct prefix or suffix to the end of the name 0 Amines add amine at the end of the name as a suffix o Alcohols add the suffix ol to the end of the main name 0 Ethers name the two substituents in alphabetically order and then add the word ether after the name 0 Halides add the name of the halide minus the ending to the beginning of the name ie chloropentane 9 Classifying a carbon in the chain 0 A carbon in a chain can be classified by the number of carbons it is attached to 0 Primary attached to one other carbon 0 Secondary attached to two carbons o Tertiary attached to three carbons o Quatemary attached to four carbons 10 Nomenclature cyclic carbon compounds 0 When a carbon compound is cyclic the prefix cyclo is added to the chain name in front of the prefix denoting the number of carbons ie cyclopentane o The nomenclature rules for substituents remain the same as with noncyclic compounds but with a few caveats o The carbon chain should be numbered starting on the substituent that is the first alphabetically o The chain should be numbered in the direction of the nearest substituent 0 When a substituent carbon chain has more carbons than the ring the ring becomes the substituent o If more than one substituent is attached to a single carbon remember to place the same number in front of their names If they are the same put the number twice ie 11 in front of the substituent name 11 Classifying Alcohols o Alcohols are classified by What type of carbon they are attached to primary secondary etc 12 Diols o A compound With an alcohol functional group at each end
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