Psychology Week 2
Psychology Week 2 CHEM 211-002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Marcy on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 211-002 at George Mason University taught by Paul Cooper in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Briana Marcy Psyc 100001 Dr Anderson Week 2 Prologue Cont d First Notable Women in Psychology Mary Whiton Calkins 18631930 Memory researcher and 1st female APA president she studied under William James but was discriminated against bc of her gender and was denied a PhD women would not be allowed a PhD from Harvard until 1963 Margaret Floy Washburn 2nOI Female president of the APA author of The Animal Mind she studied with Titchener but was barred from his experimental psychology organization Development of Psychological Science and Behaviorism Behaviorism is the quotscientific study of observable behavior with no references to mental processes It was a major force in psychology up until the 19605 John Watson is associated with classical conditioning and BF Skinner is associated with operant conditioning and both dismissed introspection carried out the famous and controversial quotLittle Albert experiments See httppsychologyaboutcomodclassicpsychologystudiesalittlealbert experimenthtm for more info on it Watson viewed behavior quotas a result of environmental experience or learning 1 John Watson was essentially the founder of behaviorism and he thought psychology should only focus on observable and measurable behaviors Pavlov quotconditioned reflex basic mechanism of learning 1 All phrases in quotations are taken directly from Dr Anderson s PowerPoints Everything else has been reworded andor added to Freudian Psychology He was primarily a writer He emphasized the ways that unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences affect a person later on in life He was a major force up until the 19605 Book recommended by Professor Anderson The Interpretation of Dreams by Sigmund Freud Revived the study of mental processes and focused on how a person s current environments nurture or limit their growth potential And it focused on the importance for having the need for love and acceptance from others satisfied Movement led by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow came up with Maslow s Hierarchy of needs shown below The occurred in 1960 and focus was brought back to mental processes so no longerjust studying what can be observed and easily measured Cognitive psychology scientifically explored the ways in which information is perceived processed and ultimately remembered The interdisciplinary field of cognitive neuroscience ties together the science of the mind cog Psyc and the science of the brain neuroscience and focuses on the brain activity the underlies mental activity The most up to date definition of psychology is quotthe science of behavior and mental processes Mental processes the internal and subjective processes experienced and inferred from behavior Behavior any option that can be observed or recorded Contemporary Psychology Over the past many years the study of psychology has been growing and going global quotPyschology pioneers have come from many related fields such as physiology philosophy medicine and biology This growth is contributing to a growing understanding of biology and experience and has further fueled the The debate is over the extent that our traits already set in place at birth referred to as our quotnaturequot and the extent that our traits develop in response to our environments and experiences our nurture affect us throughout our life Some argue that one affects us more than the other Just for reference may be important Who sided with what theory in the past Nature Plato thought that character and intelligence are inherited and some ideas are inborn Descartes some ideas are intuitive Darwin some traits behaviors and instincts are part of our species natural selection Nurture Aristotle content of mind comes through senses Locke we are born with our mind as a quotblank slate Evolutionary Psychology focuses on how humans are alike bc of common biological and evolutionary history Behavior Genetics focuses on differences related to differing genes and environments CrossCultural Psychology focuses on ways that culture shapes behavior but same underlying processes are achieved Gender Psychology focuses on differences because the similarities between men and women are extensive Martin Seligman known for his studies of Positive Psychology He explores quothuman flourishing He uses scientific methods to investigate building of a good life that engages skill building and a meaningful life that extends beyond self Psychology s 3 main levels of Analysis Biological influences Psychological influences Socialcultural influences All of these point to explaining behavior and mental processes For a more indepth review of the 3 levels of analysis refer back to slide 65 of the Prologue PP Psychology s Subfields Includes researchers w a common goal which is to describe and explain behaviors of the mind Types of researchers biological developmental cognitive evolutionary behavior genetics psychodynamic behavioral sociocultural Use your time wisely It can be tough but you ve got this 0 Specifically don t try to study for like 5 hours straight Split up your studying over a few days switching between classes you re studying for studying like 30 minsan hour at a time And reward yourself for sticking to a studywork schedule Learn critical thinking Try to really listen in class and actively process what you are hearing 0 It s helpful to take some notes and class and go back to the PP later and finish them so you re not just frantically trying to scrawl everything down in class OVERLEARN the material Do your own research read the book study with friends watch youtu be videos about chemistry whatever works for you get creative
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