Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes Bio 208
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie McLaughlin on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 208 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Ed Draper in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Cell Biology in Biological Sciences at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Week 3 Notes Chapter 4 cont H x OH 10quot14 M always adds up to 10quot14 normaly 10quot7 x 10quot7 10quot14 if ones changed the other has to balance to equal 10quot14 EX 10quot6 X 10quot8 10quot14 H is what the pH scale is based off of ogH H on pH scale so log1 x 10quot 7 x 1 7 Phosohate Grouo OPO32 gycero phosphate which takes part in many important chemical reactions in cells contributes negative charge when attached confers on a molecule the ability to react with water releasing energy compound name strong acids fully ionized negatively charged very polar nucleic acids DNA amp RNA phospholipid5 major components of lipid bia yer membranes ATP universal energy carrier in cells Methvl Grouo CH3 5methyl cytosine a component of DNA that has been modi ed by addition of a methyl group affects the expression of genes affects the shape and function of sex hormones compound name methyl group is not chemically reactive serves as a recognizable tag on biological molecules structures intimately related to function Chapter 5 Structure and Function of Laroe Biolooical Molecules 1 Monomers and polymers 2 Carbohydrates functions structure energy storage monosaccharides subunits gyosidic linkage disaccharides polysaccharides starch and cellulose 3 Lipids hydrophobic contain many CC and CH bonds trigycerides fats and oils phospholipids bilayer membranes steroids membranes hormones 4 Central dogma of molecular biology DNA gt RNA gt proteins gt diverse functions 5 Proteins functions amino acids subunits peptide bonds conformation native vs denatured 6 Nucleic acids nucleotides subunits DNA structure of the double helix genetic information RNA 7 Polymers long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds arge and complex carbohydrates protein and nucleic acids are true polymers lipids are large but are not polymers assembed from small simple subunits about 50 common biological monomers genera functions 1 Storage 2 Structure 3 Information synthesis and breakdown of polymers monomers are joined to form polymers by a process called or One H20 is released for each bond that is formed Requires energy poymers are broken down by One H20 is consumed for each broken bond Energy released Carbohvdrates mon05accharides have the general formula CH20n n 3 triose C3H603 n 5 pentose C5H1003 n 6 hexose C6H1206 functions energy storage starch structure cellulose chitin information cell surface receptors Monosaccharides hydroxyl groups OH are attached to of the carbons the remaining carbon is part of C 0 have a carbonyl group have an carbonyl group monosaccharide with the same number of carbons are hexoses are C6H 1206 aso may be glucose and galactose are mirror images of each other at one position can occur in a or a favored Both forms occur in water interconversion does require energy Carbons are numbered ony ring form can make with other monosaccharides hydroxyl groups attached to speci c carbons form these linkages covalently joined monosaccharides to make disaccharides an example of dehydration synthesis General Prooerties of Carbohvdrate Polvmers 1 Monosaccharides are added to a polymer one at a time by glyosidic linkages 2 Can have 100039s of subunits 3 Can be branched 4 Can be made from one type homopolymers or different types of monosaccharide heteropolymers share many features Function of cellulose is very different from that of starch and glycogen which is due to their unique structures starch is used for occur in plant chloroplasts 5tarch 1 Contains only glucose homopolymer 2 Is joined by 1 gt 4 linkages 3 Can be branched or unbranched gycogen is used for energy storage in animals It is like amylopectin with more branches 1 Contains only glucose homopolymer 2 Joined by 1 gt 4 linkages ceu05e never branched can pack tight together making H bonds Is a major structural component of plant cell walls wood paper Provides strength contains a lot of energy can be burned but is not for energy storage in cells because it is very dif cult to degrade 1 Contains only glucose homopolymer 2 joined by 1 gt 4 linkages 3 Unbranched 4 are held together by H bonds bundles of cellulose chains are called enzymes capable of degrading cellulose are in nature chitin has a structure similar to that of cellulose B 14 unbranched polymers chitin gives strength to insect exoskeletons and fungal cell walls chitin is embedded in proteins forms the exoskeleton of arthropods chitins is used to make a strong and exible surgical thread um contain many CC and CH bonds hydrophobic store lots of energy in these bonds arge molecules but polymers many types 1 Triglycerides fats and oils energy storage 2 Phospholipids bilayer membranes 3 Steroids membranes hormones involves a A fatty acid chain of 1620 carbon atoms is joined by its carboxyl group to The bond formed is on three fatty acids are attached to one glycerol by ester linkages hard fats from animal butter lard bacon grease are solid at room temperature about 25 C due to tight packing of fatty acids oils from plants olive oil corn oil are liquid at room temperature due to Phospholipid Molecule 2 fatty acid tails gycero hydrophiic head group charge phosphate and charge group zwitterion has a positive and negative charge these molecules are in water phospholipids assemble into Hydrophilic heads interact with water Hydrophobic tails avoid water and interact with each other Lipid bilayers are the bases choestero is a It has 4 fused rings found in all steroids plus a short hydrocarbon Overview of Protein Functions Enzymes makebreak bonds Defense against disease Amino acids storage Transport across membranes Hormones Receptors Cell motility Structure and support NQP PWF Amino Acids are subunits of proteins the cxcarbon has 4 groups attached 13 are common to all amino acids 1 Amino acids 2 Carboxyl group 3 H bond 4 Rgroup each of 20 amino acids found in proteins has a different Rgroup what Rgroup an amino acid has determines its properties only the of amino acids is used to make proteins there are 4 groups of amino acids Group 1 amino acids with Rgroups Group 2 amino acids with Rgroups Group 3 amino acids with Rgroups electrically charged side chains hydrophilic Group 4 amino acids with Rgroups electrically charged side chains hydrophilic Peptide Bonds covalently link amino acids involve the carboxyl group of one amino acid with the amino group of another amino acid dehydration synthesis reaction peptide backbone has repeating patterns NCCNCCNCC the rst amino acid is at the amino end Nterminus each new amino acid is added to the carboxyl end Cterminus Rgroups side chains stick out the amino acid chain is a
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