Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes CHEM 103-025
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Buch on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 103-025 at University of Delaware taught by Jacqueline Fajardo in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Integrated Chemistry 103 Dr Faj ardo Week 2 979 11 Chapter 2 Atoms Ions and Molecules Matter Starts Here 21 The Nuclear Model of Atomic Structure A Electrons 1 J J Thomson was critical in the discovery of subatomic particles i Cathode ray tube emits cathode rays stream of electrons in a partially evacuated tube ii Plum pudding model atom is a diffuse sphere of positive charge with negatively charged electrons embedded in the sphere like raisins in a plum pudding demise was linked to radioactivity 2 Electron a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and essentially zero mass B Radioactivity and the Nuclear Atom 1 Radioactivity the spontaneous emission of highenergy radiation and particles by materials 2 Beta particle a radioactive emission that is a highenergy electron 3 Alpha particle a radioactive emission with a charge of 2 and a mass equivalent of a helium nucleus 4 Gold Foil experiment Rutherford discovered that de ection of alpha particles occurs because the alpha particles occasionally encountered small regions of high positive charge and large mass i New model assumes that the atom consists of a massive but tiny positively charged nucleus surrounded by a diffuse cloud of negatively charged electrons ii Nucleus the positively charged center of an atom that contains nearly all of the atom s mass C Proton a positively charged subatomic particle present in the nucleus of an atom D Neutron an electrically neutral uncharged subatomic particle found in the nucleus on an atom E Atomic mass unit amu unit used to express the relative masses of atoms and subatomic particles exactly half the mass of one atom of carbon With six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus F Dalton Da a unit of mass identical to 1 amu 22 Isotopes A Francis W Aston built modified cathoderay tubes atoms of the fill gas had lost electrons and formed positive ions B Ion an atom or group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge C Isotopes atoms of an element containing different number of neutrons different mass D Nuclide the nucleus of a specific isotope of an element E Atomic number Z the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom F Nucleon either a proton or a neutron in a nucleus G Mass number A the number of nucleons in an atom H Periodic Table of the Elements a chart of the elements in order of their atomic numbers and in a pattern based on their physical and chemical processes I How to write a nuclide 1 X 23 Average Atomic Mass A Average atomic mass 1 A weighted average of masses of all isotopes of an element calculated by multiplying the natural abundance of each isotope by its mass in amu and then summing the products 2 number above the symbol on the periodic table B Natural abundance the proportion of a particular isotope usually expressed as a percentage relative to all the isotopes of that element in a natural sample 24 The Periodic Table of the Elements A Dmitri Mendeleev arranged his table in order of atomic mass B Modern periodic table arranged in order of increasing atomic number C Period a horizontal row in the periodic table 1 Two in the first period 8 in periods two and three and 18 in the rest D Group all the elements in the same column of the periodic table family 1 Alkali metals elements in group 1 2 Alkaline earth metals group 2 3 Halogens group 17 4 Main group elements representative elements groups 1 2 1318 5 Transition metals groups 312 6 Noble gases group 18 E Metals the elements on the left side of the periodic table 1 shiny solids that conduct heat and electricity well 2 malleable and ductile F Nonmetals elements with properties opposite of metals 1 poor conductivity of heat and electricity G Metalloids semimetals elements along the border between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table some metallic properties and some nonmetallic 25 Trends in Compound Formation A Dalton s law of multiple proportions the ratio of the two masses of one element that react with a given mass of another element to form two different compounds is the ratio of two small whole numbers B Molecular compounds 1 Molecular compound a compound composed of atoms held together in molecules by covalent bonds 2 Covalent bond a bond between two atoms created by sharing one or more pairs of electrons 3 Molecular formula a notation showing the number and type of atoms present in one molecule of a molecular compound 4 Many different ways to form covalent bonds between atoms of the same two elements C Ionic Compounds 1 Ionic compound a compound composed of positively and negatively charged ions held together by electrostatic attraction 2 Cation a positively charged particle created when an atom or molecule loses one or more electrons 3 Anion a negatively charged particle created when an atom or molecule gains one or more electrons 4 Empirical formula a formula showing the smallest wholenumber ratio of elements in a compound 5 Formula unit the smallest electrically neutral unit of an ionic compound 26 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas A Binary Molecular Compounds carbon dioxide 1 Start with the name of the first element in the formula usually lowest group number 2 Change the ending of the name in the second element to ide 3 Add prefixes based to the first and second names to indicate the number of atoms of each type in the molecule do not use mono for the first element B Binary Ionic Compounds magnesium uoride 1 Start with the name of the cation name of the parent element 2 Add the name of the anion which is the name of the element except that the ending is changed to ide C Binary Compounds of Transition Metals 1 Roman numerals are used to indicate the charge of nearly all transition metals Z 2Z 2Z exceptfor Ag Cd and Zn D Polyatomic Ions 1 Charged groups of two or more atoms joined together by covalent bonds 2 Oxoanions polyatomic ions that contain oxygen in combination with one or more other elements a Name based on the name of the element that appears first in the formula but the ending is changed to ite or ate depending on the number of oxygen atoms b When there are multiples of the same ion put parenthesis around E Acids 1 Add the prefix hydro to the name of the element other than hydrogen 2 Replace the last syllable in the element name from step one With the suffix ic acid
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