Week 3 History Notes
Week 3 History Notes HIST 1010 - GL2
Popular in World History I
Dr. Jayda Mayert
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Chambers on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - GL2 at Auburn University taught by Michael B Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
From Rome to Constantinople amp The Western Barbarians End of Rome Birth of Europe Religion in Rome Polytheistic No strong ethics of morals Belief in the gods not necessarily crucial More ceremonial Sacn ces Festivals Honor gods whether you believed or not More of a social thing 0 Feasting o Sacri cing 0 Building a sense of community 0 Very open to other gods 0 When they defeatedconquered a people they would often adopt their god Empire 0 Expansion brings in uence of eastern religions Emperor demands faith to religion Persian religion heavily in uential o Monotheistic o Zoroastrianism Creator god Evil god Believed in a judgement day Heaven Hell Savior gure Romans become monotheistic Mystery cults become popular 0 Secret sacred knowledge only shared with members Work way through religion 0 Religion becomes a private event ludea Rome and lesus of Nazareth Pompi brings Judea into Roman control 0 Jewish people become part of Rome Jewish Religion From Rome to Constantinople amp The Western Barbarians End of Rome Birth of Europe Monotheistic Constantly being conquered Roman control Goes well at rst Romans later seen as threat Jews begin to adopt Roman culture ManyJews like being under Roman control Zealots arise Believe they should adhere to Jewish tradition Thought they should ght back Jesus of Nazareth Strict adherence to Jewish law Zealot Nonviolent Never advocates war with Rome 0 Viewed as threat by Roman hierarchy Cruci ed for treason Jewish revolt against Rome Romans attackJerusalem Romans destroy 2nCI temple 7OAD lews scatter from Israel Paul and Christianitv SaulPaul Originally persecuted Christians then became a Christian Very well educated o Knows Greek 0 Roman citizen 0 These two things allow him to share Christianity with all people and move around the Roman empire with ease Rome proper Turkey Greece Eventually arrested and cruci ed From Rome to Constantinople amp The Western Barbarians End of Rome Birth of Europe Christianity became popular because it spread across classes sexes and cultures Spread rapidly Roman leadership doesn39t like Christianity Reject Roman culture 0 Would not worship emperors as gods Persecution Empirical Rome Expands into Brittan and North Africa Professional military Volunteers only no draft After service awarded citizenship 0 Most conquered cultures are not citizens Run into Parthian Persian Empire Rome can39t ever really defeat them Can39t expand any further into middle east Can39t expand any further north either because of Gallia Germany Rome goes on the defensive Troops permanently Frontier commanders given more power 0 Initially this works 0 Soldiers become loyal to their commanders rather than Rome This means that the frontier commanders have more power than originally decided 200AD Military gets involved with passing of empirical power When emperor dies frontier commanders march on Rome and ght each other for power and the most powerful man comes out as leader 0 Roman leaders are no longer 39made39 in Rome this minimizes the importance of Rome proper 235AD Septimius Severius From Rome to Constantinople amp The Western Barbarians End of Rome Birth of Europe One of the rst emperors to take power by force 0 His great grandson is later assassinated so that he can t take charge 26 emperors in 50 years 0 Military emperors stop being operational Persian empire falls and is replaced by Sasanian Empire 0 This turns out to be a very strong empire that starts to take Rome Diocletian 285305 AD Ruled from Croatia Decides that Rome is too big for one man to rule Creates tetra rchy o 4 emperors to control 4 parts of the empire Each part has two ceasars under the main leader so that if the tetrarch dies there is always someone to take charge to prevent the same blood bath that followed so many emperors before 0 In charge of keeping their individual sections safe 0 He wants a strong and PEACEFUL government Wants to suppress Christianity 0 Destroys churches o Kills prominent church leaders 0 This tetrarchy further lessens the in uence of Rome proper in the Roman empire Diocletian himself spends very little time in Rome proper He eventually retires and completely withdraws from Rome39s issues 0 The three remaining tetrarchs then begin ghting each other for power Constantine Defeats the tetrarchs abolishing the tetrarchy entirely Becomes sole emperor Returns Rome into its previous state of government Unites Rome under Christianity 313 AD Constantine writes edict of Milan 0 Legalizes freedom of worship in Roman empire Constantine decides to solve the doctrinal issues of the church in order to unite it 324 AD 0 Calls for a meeting of the church leaders in Nicea From Rome to Constantinople amp The Western Barbarians End of Rome Birth of Europe They decide thatJesus is both wholly man and wholly God 0 This solves the most controversial argument between sects of churches Center of the empire moves to the middle east 0 Constantinople modern day Turkey Port city 330 AD 0 He moves to Constantinople Proclaims Constantinople is the capital of Rome 0 Greek replaces Latin 0 Constantine makes both sons coemperors o 2 parts of the empire 0 Trend of coemperors surfaces 0 Most want the eastern half of the empire because it is the wealthiest Theodisius 392395 AD Last emperor to rule of the united Roman empire Last real emperor Proclaims Christianity is the state religion 0 Only approved religion Persecution reversed State doesn39t advocate or participate in the persecution of other religions but there is no punishment if anyone persecutes someone else due to their religion Restriction on Jews Also has two sons 0 Causes a permanent split From Rome to Constantinople amp The Western Barbarians End of Rome Birth of Europe The Western Barbarians People of Rome Multiethnic Latin speaking Romans themselves Rave never really an issue 0 Slaves were not based on a certain group Could be any conquered group World view 0 Believe themselves to be the most civilized Believe everyone inside the roman empire is good everyone else are Barbarians Germanic Barbarians and their culture not much known they were illiterate no records except those the Romans wrote 0 inaccurate because they were obviously skewed to make the Romans look better and the Barbarians look worse loosely allied with each other o the tribes not barbarians and romans very different from the Romans 0 technology behind in agriculture 0 mostly herders 0 rural living o long hair and they wore pants not togas pantheistic social structure 0 warrior society 0 only warriors could be leaders because they were the strongest 0 people became loyal to the strongest man there was a strong bond between the leader and his men though this worked for them it was unstable because any one leader could be over thrown at any time by a 39stronger39 man women and the people who didn39t ght were seen as lesser beings Germanic law have to have the protection of a group group being tribe this was the only way for you to be under some form of law if one man was murdered members of the tribe have to right and duty to seek vengeance for the dead man Wergeld From Rome to Constantinople amp The Western Barbarians End of Rome Birth of Europe 0 Man money 0 A currency that could be traded between the murderer and the victims family in exchange the victims family would not seek to kill the murderer basically a pay off Social inequality 0 Higher penalty for a man being killed than if a woman slave or child were killed 0 basically men cost more Personality of law 0 Laws speci c to each tribe If you leave that tribe and commit a crime you are still under the law of that tribe Barbarians and the Collapse of Rome 0 Rome encroaching on their territory 0 Rome tries to use barbarians to keep their borders safe 0 Diplomacy All people granted citizenship in 212 AD causes a problem because people who live in and weren39t citizens before do not have any incentive to join the army because now they have citizenship This does mean however that people outside of Rome will join the military so that they can become citizens speci cally Germanic tribesmen 30039s 0 370 Germanic people no longer stay out of Rome 0 Believed to be caused by invasion that drove the Germanic tribes into Rome in order to escape o Visigoths invade Rome 0 378 Roman army defeated in battle Theodosius creates a peace treaty o Treaty says that they can come to Rome if they help to protect Rome join the army 40039s 0 410 Visigoths sack Rome 0 Decline of Rome 0 Rome is broken up by various groups 0 No longer Rome but a series of kingdoms The two cultures Roman and Germanic begin to mix 0 Marriage 0 Law From Rome to Constantinople amp The Western Barbarians End of Rome Birth of Europe Beoinnino of the Dark Aoes Break down of society Germanic leaders try to respect and preserve Roman culture 0 Law Code of Urich mostly Roman law with a little German 0 Germans under German law 0 Romans under Roman law Deve0pment of Christian Church 0 Only part of Roman culture that survives Church has structure and clearly de ned leaders as well as good means of communicating Government falls and the church leaders become leaders of society 0 Church is basically independent 0 Church leaders become allies to Germanic conquerors to keep the peace among Romans 0 Church leaders are HIGHLY educated Alliances with the German people gives them the opportunity to convert them 0 Germans convert to Arianism a form of Christianity 0 But church wants them to be Roman Catholic 496 AD Clovis l converts to Catholicism 0 Church supports him 0 In exchange Clovis protects the church and FORCES people to become Catholic Carolingian Empire 0 People want to be more like the Romans used to be 0 Some people also like the German idea of warrior kings 0 These two culture REALLY start to meld Church become even more independent 0 State takes care of the church 0 700 Franks arise as most powerful group 0 Back story After rome falls Justinian rises from what39s left in Constantinople and almost takes back Rome but a plague hits and ruins his plans his fall opens the way for the Franks to take power 0 732 Charles Martel defeats Muslim army invading France 0 Charles Martel39s grandson Charlemagne takes most of western Europe 0 Pope Leo III is driven out of Rome From Rome to Constantinople amp The Western Barbarians End of Rome Birth of Europe o Asks Charlemagne for help 0 Charlemagne helps In return the Pope 39crowns him augusti Charlemagne decides to make his own new Roman empire He doesn39t really accomplish his goal of conquering but he does set up a system that essentially ensures the churches safety Charlemagne tries his best to make a new Roman empire 0 O Promotes the use of Latin in court Copies roman texts which is why we have so many of the texts that we havetoday Creates Carolingian minuscule a new form of text
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