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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Payton Hagerdorn on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to psych 31532 at Kent State University taught by Elizabeth Baker (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Social Psych Methodology Overview 0 How do we formulate questions 0 How do we answer these questions and how do we make sure we re answering those questions ethically How do we formulate questions 0 How does it all start 0 With a question of course III quotWhy does X happenquot III We re all scientists We then form a hypothesis III What is an explanation for why X happens III theory theory theory 0 Then we test it must be testable III Must be able to collect data and get results 0 Thenbased on what we nd we take the next step III Might re ne a theory Change the way we think about things How do we answer these questions 0 We design experiments 0 3 types we will cover today III Observational III Correlational III Experimental III Goal is to be able to understand these and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each method Observational method 0 The technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior 0 Subject doesn t know you re there quotcreepinquot Types III Ethnography D Attempt to understand a groupculture from the inside Become part of the group without disrupting it D Can include coding III Archival analysis looking at archives to answer questions D Used to use newspapers books etc now we can use things like twitter 0 When would the observational method be useful pros III When the goal is to describe what a particular group of people or type of behavior is like ie cults What are the limits of the observational method cons III Does not tell us why We can t observe everything sexual activity bathroom use etc Can t manipulatecontrol what s happening We can t predict or explain If the subjects know you re there the behavior could change EIEIEIEI Correlational method 0 The technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them is assessed 0 We use the correlation coef cient to do this III Statistical technique that assesses how strongly two things are related and in what way III Can t predictprove one variable or another III We show relationships 0 What are the limits of the correlational method III Can39t imply causation III If we DO nd a correlationis X causing Y ls Y causing X Are they causing each other Is a third variable involved Experimental method 0 The method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable the one thought to have a causal effect on people s responses III Figuring out if X is really causing Y III Can manipulate variables and therefore imply causation 0 Example III Does caffeine consumption improve test performance 0 Independent predictor variable 0 The variable a researcher changesvaries to see if it has an effect on some other variable 0 Caffeine consumption Dependent outcome variable 0 The variable a researcher measures to see if it is in uenced by the independent predictor variable 0 Test performance 0 Example cont III How might we test this 0 Systematically 0 Person may already be a coffee drinker and the coffee brought may not affect that person 0 Are the groups equal 0 Differentle 0 Random assignment III What other things to we want to consider 0 Previous grades on exams 0 Time spent studying o 0 Time of day can hold constant 0 Hypothesis the more caffeine you drink the better you preform on tests How do we make sure we re answering those questions ethically We have two goals in research III To answer a question III To avoid causing harm to participants Ethical Issues Informed consent III Agreement to participate in an experiment granted in full awareness of the nature of the experiment which has been explained in advance 0 Deception III Misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire Debrie ng III Explain at the end of the experiment the true purpose of the study and what all happened 0 Institutional Review Board IRB III The people that make sure we re doing it right Putting it all together 0 Instructions Answer the following questions for each study described below 1 Is the study primarily an observational study a correlational study or an experiment Why do you give the answer you did 2 What are the variables involved in the study For experiments specify the independent and dependent variables 3 What might be the hypothesis that the researchers are trying to test Example 1 o A researcher is interested in the relationship between caffeine consumption and level of stress She has participants keep a diary for one week during which they count the number of cups of coffee tea and colabased soft drinks they consume as well as recording consumption of chocolate and medications that have caffeine as an ingredient In addition participants complete a measure of quotdaily hasslesquot experienced during the week Example 2 Researchers are interested in in uences on selfesteem Half of the participants used in this study are male and half are female Participants are given a set of anagram problems to solve in a five minute time limit Half are randomly assigned to receive very easy anagrams and half are given difficult ones After completing as many of the anagrams as they can participants are given a questionnaire labeled quotThoughts and Feelings Questionnairequot that is really a measure of selfesteem
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