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Week 1 Notes for Genetics and Evolution

by: Tatyana Fortune

Week 1 Notes for Genetics and Evolution BIOL 2500

Marketplace > Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute > Biology > BIOL 2500 > Week 1 Notes for Genetics and Evolution
Tatyana Fortune
GPA 3.07
Genetics & Evolution
Patrick Maxwell

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Professor Maxwell Week One Notes with material added from the textbook.
Genetics & Evolution
Patrick Maxwell
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatyana Fortune on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2500 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Patrick Maxwell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Genetics & Evolution in Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Date Created: 09/13/15
Genetics and Evolution Week 1 Inheritance of Mendelian Traits The importance of Gregory Mendel s experiment it showed how Mendelian traits are inherited His studies support the theories of Dominance Segregation and Independent Assortment A flowering plant has two sexual organs an anther male and an ovary female They can self fertilize Mendel had to manually crossfertilize his plants In order to probably study inheritance Mendel had to use truebreeding individuals That means that they would always produce offspring with the same genotype as themselves Hybrids those who have two different copies of the same gene cannot true breed for any traits because there is always a chance that their offspring could be heterozygous or homozygous Singlefactor cross One gene By mating two individuals of the same species with breeding traits that are determined by one DNA marker Mendel was able to discover the concept of recessive and dominant traits This is because the DNA marker could cause two different expressions of the gene By mating a homozygous dominant parent WW with a homozygous recessive parent ww the results of their offspring the F1 generation show that 100 of the offspring were expected to have the same phenotype dominant But by mating the offspring in the F1 generation with each other to produce more offspring the F2 generation Mendel was able to see that the trait had skipped a generation The offspring in the F2 generation displayed the original homozygous recessive parent s phenotype in addition to the dominant phenotype This led him to believe that the individuals in the F1 generation had to be carriers of the gene even though the dominant one is expressed they also have the recessive trait in their DNA This is termed Heterozygous Ww Testcross One way to verify one of Mendel s predictions Singlefactor crosses and testcrosses showed that gametes are given one copy of a gene Heterozygous parents are Ww They donate in equal amounts W or w to each gamete There were two hypotheses about the results of a two factor cross two genes Linked assortment States that the two genes would be inherited together So if one parent is homozygous recessive bbkk and the other is homozygous dominant BBKK their offspring would be made up of their two gametes BK bk But their offspring would produce the same kind of gametes as their parents One BK and one bk And that would keep happening The dominant would never be inherited with a recessive partner Independent assortment States that the two genes could be inherited randomly So if the parents are BBKK and bbkk who knows nature might give you BBKk or bka or whatever and it s all left to chance And genetics Chromosome Theory of Inheritance of 1902 Two VPs 0 Walter Sutton He s the one who realized that all of the genes that Mendel tested were probably located on chromosomes He knew that each chromosome was unique and responsible for certain areas of normal development That s why it is so important that we get each of them He also figured that there was a special number that was needed to get a complete set 0 Theodor Boveri His observations about chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization showed that gametes are only given half of a chromosome set This is necessary for the two gametes male and female to come together during fertilization and create an embryo that is half of mom and half of dad fthis were not the case this new embryo would have twice as many chromosomes then necessary to live Haploid Having half the amount of chromosomes for your species For humans that is 23 Diploid Having all the pairs of chromosomes for your species In humans that means 46 Homologous A pair of chromosomes that have the same function or have the two different copies of the same gene One is inherited form the mom and the other is from the dad Except for gametes the two genders have the same types of chromosomes During fertilization the two similar chromosomes find each other Sexlinked inheritance The Qromosome Theory of Inheritance explains how independent assortment effects chromosome behavior Thomas Hunt Morgan and Calvin Bridgg both of their experiments showed how gender has a role in chromosome inheritance By studying and mating flies they able to see that males inherit only one copy of the X chromosome from his mother and a copy of the Y chromosome from his father The Y chromosome doesn t carry Mendelian traits Female parents with homozygous recessive traits will always pass it down to their sons and if the mother is heterozygous there is a 50 chance she will pass it down to her sons So this means that traits can either be passed down on 22 different chromosomes form both parents OR it can be passed down on the X chromosome making it Xlinked This is how defective genes can be passed down through generations without being detected How do we know that DNA contains the genetic info that is passed down to offspring 0 There were many experiments that led us to this result The first one done by a Mr Griffith showed that bacteria could change their type He studied pneumonia in mice and tested two kinds of cells S cells and R cells 0 Another experiment by Averv MacLeod and Mch y used the same type of cells and were to show that out of the three choices DNase RNase and protease that DNase was the likely candidate to carry genetic information 0 Alfred Hen and Martha Chase also did an experiment that depended on T2 phage infection and reproduction Phages are made up of DNA and protein so this experiment tested them both as the candidate for genetic material The experiment showed the DNA was the winner DNA Structure and Replication DNA is made up of four different nucleotides bounded in pairs and built in a ladder that twists into a double helix shape This shape was discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick The double helix is held together by hydrogen bonds A and G are purines which means that they have a double ring structure and C and T are pyrimidines which means they have a single ring structure DNA uses a semiconservative model to replicate it splits in half and then uses those parent strands to create new partners Bacteria have circularlooped chromosomes while eukaryotes do not RNA is a single strand


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