Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes CRIM 315
Popular in Research Methods/Analysis Crim
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Robinson on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CRIM 315 at George Mason University taught by Sue-Ming Yang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Research Methods/Analysis Crim in Criminology and Criminal Justice at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Research Methods and Analysis in Criminology LECTURE 1 Scientific Inquiry vs Common Sense Everyday Errors in Reasoning OvergeneralizationWhat is true for one case is true for all cases We can overgeneralize when we forget the limitations of our experiences Selective Observation or Inaccurate ObservationWhen we look at things according to personal beliefs regardless of fact We think we see something that did not occur or perceive the same situation differently from someone else Illogical ReasoningDrawing conclusions from invalid assumptions Resistance to ChangePeople don t like changes even good changes Egobased commitment It s hard for people to admit that they are wrong Devotion to tradition We are animals of habit and we might alter our reasoning to maintain beliefs How can we avoid these problems We can avoid these problem through use of good research methods Solutions Reduce the likelihood of overgeneralization I Example Study a wide range of school shootings rather than drawing conclusions from the ones that are most popular I Avoid illogical reasoning don t jump to conclusions too quickly I Reduce the risk of selective or inaccurate observation separate emotions from judgments I Be open minded remain open to changes Common Sense vs Empirical Evidence I Does police patrol reducedeter crime Research Example Kansas City Preventative Patrol Kelling 1974 I Yearlong study was conducted I The police beats were divided into three random groups 1 Reactive No preventative patrol where police only responded to calls for service 2 ProActive Group where preventative patrol increases 23 times of its usual level 3 Control Group which remained at the normal level of preventative patrol I Outcome Evaluation which used victimization surveys and crime report data to determine whether preventive patrol was effective in preventing crime The results showed none of the three group s patrol positions appeared to be impacted 1 Rates of reporting crime to the police 2 Selfreported victimization burglaries Citizens attitudes toward police service delivery Citizen feelings of security and perception of fear Police response time Citizen satisfaction with police response time Overall Preventative Patrol did not significantly impact the incidence of crime or public perceptions of fear of crime What is science and what is social science Science a set of logical systematic documented methods for investigating nature and natural processes the knowledge produced by these investigations Social Science the use of scientific methods to investigate individuals societies and social processes the knowledge produced by these investigations Criminology and criminal justice research is an area of social science researchUsing scientific methods to study the social world Strengths and Limitations of Social Research Strength Reduction of error in everyday reasoning Limitations 1 Always subject to some error 2 Always subject to different interpretations Why do we want to do research Policy motivations Evaluate programs and policies to determine their success and develop ways to improve outcomes and better address problems Academic motivations Learn more about complex social phenomena to better understand crime and society s response to it I Personal Motivations Improve Society solve a problem of personal interest Basic types of research I Descriptive Define and describe Count Who What When Where Why I Exploratory Gather more information on newly identified areasconcerns What s going on I Explanatory Cause and effect Why I Evaluation Effects of intervention No one size fits all We use different research methods often answer different research questions