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by: Yasmina Notetaker

AncientNearEastNotes2.pdf 2040 - 002

Marketplace > University of Toledo > History > 2040 - 002 > AncientNearEastNotes2 pdf
Yasmina Notetaker
GPA 4.0
ancient near east
Robert T. McCollough

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About this Document

This is a bundle of notes from my Ancient Near East class. The notes were taken on September 08, 2015 and September 10, 2015.
ancient near east
Robert T. McCollough
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yasmina Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2040 - 002 at University of Toledo taught by Robert T. McCollough in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see ancient near east in History at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 09/13/15
Ancient Near East September 082015 Early Dynastic Period and The Great Flood Sumeria Q Eighty percent of Sumerian population lived in cities Holy Sumerian City Nippur Q Stood out because it was dedicated to the creator god Enlil O In addition it attempted to stay out of politics However it was constantly dragged into conflicts between warring cities Elam Iran 0 Major source of slaves wood stone metal 0 As a country lasted from 2700 and 350 BCE O Called their land Haltamti Susa Influential City of Area 0 Despite repeated invasions the city was never incorporated into Mesopotamia Q Elamites spoke their native language even though the Mesopotamians tried to make the native language Sumeria 0 Country today is remembered for its ziggurats and writing style cuneiform Akkad Chief deities were predominantly male Less developed more war like in comparison to Sumeria Mari Influenced Sumeria through the control of trade More like the Sumerians but wealthy Followed Ishtar as primary goddess Region where Tell Hariri is located Sumerian King List 0 Document describing early history of Mesopotamia 0 Lists the kings that ruled the Sumerian cities 0 Divided into two parts before the flood and after the flood 0 Half fact half fiction far from accurate 0 Documents impossibly long reigns I For instance document claims that eight kings ruled for 241000 years 0 Leaves out a few kings reigns Q In the document it mentions that Eridu a city was chosen by the gods to rule southern Mesopotamia The Great Flood 0 Threatened the existence of mankind Q Came from the gods who were displeased by the sinful behavior exhibited by those in Mesopotamia 0 Flood was confined to the Mesopotamian plains Q The king at the time rode out the city when the flood occurred and ultimately achieved immortality Quran versus Bible Version of the Flood Story 0 In the Bible Noah saved all the animals pairs of each animal were placed on a wooden boat 0 In the Quran Noah saved only the local animals ie goats cows et cetera Varying Flood Stories World Flood Story India 0 Manu an Indian man was saved from the flood by a fish 0 Fish became manifestation of water god in Indian mythology 0 Almost every culture has a varying flood story Historians and the Great Flood 0 Sir Leonard Woolley found deep deposits of clay in the region where the flood supposedly took place that substantiates its occurrence Ku baba 0 First women to take the throne ruled for one hundred years according to the Sumerian King List Tombs of Ur 0 Two thousand burials 0 Sir Leonard Woolley found them 0 He also found sixteen royal burials dating between 2600 and 2500 BCE Human Sacrifices 0 Some people voluntarily took their own lives to be with the king and queen who died 0 They drank poison in the pit where the king and queen would be buned 0 Soldiers were killed so that they would protect the king and queen in the afterlife O In addition the bodies of special attendants such as musicians were placed in the wooden coffins housing the royals O Oxens were killed so that the royals would have an animal to ride in the afterlife 0 National Museum of Iraq housed Iraqi artifacts Q But foreigners looted museum during last war September 10 2015 Empires of Akkad and Ur Akkad 0 Northern Iraq militarial Ur 0 Southern Iraq less warlike Brief Overview In the last century of the third millennium two military dynasties emerged and brought new families into power Sargon the Great 0 Rose to power in Akkadian city of Kish Early Years 0 A priestess his mother wasn t allowed to get married or have children but she ended up being pregnant anyways Q So to hide evidence of her pregnancy and eventual childbirth Sargon she put her son in a reed basket and set him down the Tigris River I Found and raised in the house of a king given position of prime minister I Didn t like his position so he usurped the throne Q Built new capital called Agade 0 Then he gained control of Kish through his military strength 0 Developed the first truly professional army I When he rose to power the southern cities in Sumeria became weak when salt water seeped into their farmland which made their crops inedible l He then invaded Sumeria Q Fought and won thirty four battles took fifty city leaders as prisoners Q Eventually gained control of all Iraq 0 Placed Akkadians people in northern Iraq in charge of the captured cities Enheduanna O Sargon s daughter 0 He her high priestess in Ur and Uruk 0 She took her religious duties very seriously 0 Forced citizens to think twice before plotting revolt 0 After Sargon s death she was thrown out of her role as priestess Sargon Attacked Iran 0 Tried to force people in Iran to change their primary language to Akkadian Q Went as far as Turkey for invasions O Achieved true control of Ebla Syria 0 Established trade routes along upper Euphrates River 0 Citizens rebelled against King Sargon he had control of Iraq until his death Family Ties 0 Two sons took control after King Sargon died 1 Rimush a More rebellions arose because he killed tens of thousands of people and displaced them b However he was eventually assassinated in his palace 2 Rimush s brother took over soon afterwards a Rumored to have killed his brother to usurp the throne b Later he took a fleet down the Persian Gulf and was also assassinated c His son took over i First ancient Iraqi to deify himself referred to himself as a god ii He also declared himself King of Four Quarters basically the ruler of the world 1 Oddly enough he wore sets of horns thus depicting himself as a lower unimportant deity in ancient artwork iii Created mega army iv People admired him but came to believe that he had a disregard for the gods 1 People thought that the gods would unleash their fury on the city because of his disregard for them i During his reign warlike tribe occupied mountains in Turkey and Syria i They were referred to as the Lullubi and the Guti 1 Lullubi and Guti made trade in north unsafe 2 In addition they attacked and assassinated him Guti Tribe 0 They were a barbaric seminomadic people 0 Not classed amongst people not reckoned as part of the land 0 They knew no inhibitions O Characterized by their human instincts canine intelligence and monkey features An Ancient Comet Q Brought down Akkadians Q Remains of comet hit Earth 0 Impact caused climate change 0 King SharKalisharri was killed by palace coup during this time 0 Without a leader the Akkadian empire collapsed O Guti assumed control 0 Guti ruled for 125 years 0 Only controlled Nippur the holy city of Sumeria Sumerian Renaissance O Sumerian culture and literature were renewed the principle language was still Akkadian though End of Guti Rule 0 Somebody named Utuhegal attacked last Guti king and then went on to seize city of Ur 0 Made his brother its governor Q But Utuhegal later drowned when fishing or building a dam O Utuhegal s brother who was the governor beforehand took control 0 Identified himself as King of Sumeria and Akkad 0 Didn t fight much but was builder built large ziggurats that were up to one hundred feet tall 0 Even though he didn t fight much he died in battle 0 Son Shulegi took over 0 Reign was described as peaceful O Declared himself a god and the Ruler of Four Quarters O Determined that the Guti wouldn t invade l Constructed garrisons in the Zagros Mountains housing sixty thousand to one hundred thousand troops so that they wouldn t attack 0 Expected problems from Elam I So he married two of his daughters to rulers in that area I Appointed governor in Susa l Died after forty eight years of being in office son took the throne 0 His reign was characterized by repeated invasions and the migration of the Canaan people or Amorites those who lived in present day Lebanon Syria Jordan and Israel 0 Ate raw meat and dressed in sheepskins Martu Wall Q Built to prevent flow of immigrants into Iraq 0 Amorites managed to get into Iraq regardless of the wall and attacked the settlers


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