Ed psychology chapter 4
Ed psychology chapter 4 Psyc3200
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc3200 at Tulane University taught by Sarah Grey in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Educational psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Brain and Behavior 09122015 Chapter 4 neural conduction and synaptic condition Membrane potential difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of a cell 0 To record must position the tip of one electrode inside the neuron and the other tip outside 0 Microelectrodes intracellular electrode 0 A steady membrane potential of 70mV is resting potential lons Salts lon neural tissue separate into ions 0 Ion transport if performed by mechanisms in the cell membrane that continually exchange 3 NA ions inside for 2 K ions outside 0 These transporters are referred to as sodiumpotassium pumps 0 When neurotransmitter bind to postsynaptic receptors they typically have one of 2 effects 0 Depolarize decrease resting membrane potential excitatory o Hyperpolarize increase resting membrane potential inhibitory 0 Action potentials generate in axons initial segment 0 All or nothing responses 0 Integration adding or combining a number of different individual signals into one 0 Voltage activated ion channels 0 Ion channels that openclose in response to changes in the level of membrane potential Produce action potential Conduct action potential along axon Refractory periods 0 About 2 seconds after initiation of Action potential AP it is impossible to elicit a 2nCI AP Absolute refractory o Followed by a period where it is possible only when applying higher than normal stimulation relative refractory Neurotransmitters Neuropeptides large neurotransmitters short amino acids chains 336 amino acids 0 Basically a short protein Coexistence neurons with two neurotransmitters 0 Most documented cases of coexistence have included one smallmolecule neurotransmitter and one neuropeptide Exocytosis process of neurotransmitter release Ligand molecule that binds to another Receptor what neurotransmitter molecules bind to to produce signals in postsynaptic neurons De activating mechanisms Two mechanisms for deactivation o Reuptake molecule More common of the two 0 Enzymatic degradation Gap junctions Electrical synapses o Transmit signals more rapidly than chemical synapses Gap junctions have now been documented in virtually all organs and cell types in the body Glia gap junctions play a major role in brain function Neurotransmitter in CNS amino acids 0 Glutamate aspartate glycine and GABA Monoamine neurotransmitters 0 Slightly large than amino acid neurotransmitters and their effects tend to be more diffused catecholamines synthesized from tyrosine n Dopamine epinephrine norepinephrine indolamine synthesized from tryptophan n Serotonin Acetycholine small molecule neurotransmitter 0 Created by adding an acetyl group to a choline molecule 0 Located at neuromuscularjunctions ANS synapses and some CNS synapses Unconventional neurotransmitter o Easily passes through cell membranes because they are soluble in lipids The actions of each neuropeptide depends of its amino acid sequence Identi ed by where they were 1st identi ed as hormones Pituitary peptide Hypothalamic peptide Braingut peptide Opioid peptide Similar in structure to the active ingredient for opium 5 Miscellaneous peptide gtUUl 39 General steps of neurotransmitters 1 2 3 Breakdown in the cytoplasm of any neurotransmitter that leaks from FP P F Synthesis of the neurotransmitter Storage in vesicles vesicles Exocytosis Inhibitory feedback via autoreceptors Activation of postsynaptic receptor Deachann