EFB 320 Week 2
EFB 320 Week 2 EFB 320
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Donnelly on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EFB 320 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Tom Horton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see General Ecology in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
September 8 2015 Excel Air 0 O commands to know Total sumcell rangegtsumB3B5 Mean average 33324 Square 32 2 Square root sqrt cell Subtract 3336 Add divide multiply B3BG 3336 B3BG Nitrogen N2 70 Oxygen 02 21 Carbon dioxide C02 039 Water vs air C02 not limiting in air or water 02 is limiting in water aerobic conditions can exist C02 is abundant in water because water becomes more acidic as C02 levels increase in the atmospheregt passed into the oceangt causing more carbonic acid in the ocean 0 Especially bad for coral Other inorganic nutrients After HCO elements required in greatest quantity in life are NPSKCaMgFeNa All of these in uence the abundance of life in various ways Work together to allow the important process of organisms nding resources and avoiding becoming one Summary Living things depend on the physical world for energy nutrients and water Living things alter the physical world Living things function within limits set by physical laws 16 Cocopod Trigiopus During the day the water has more salt concentrated in it as fresh water evaporates The Cocopod balances out using active transport so osmosis doesn t cause great water loss Alanine and pronine are amino acids that help balance out the water concentration Amino acid concentration drops down when fresh water is added CHAPTER 3 Adaptation to Physical Environment Ex Fig 321 Wedge tailed shearwater hypothesis 0 Some burrow down into the sand for their nests that have 50 hatching success 0 Burrowed nests protect the eggs from the heat Water conservation in hot environment 2 temperature optima for acetyl cholinesterase enzyme Fig 316 The enzyme has 2 different versions Fig 324 salinity optima for bacterial enzymes Increase surface area in soil particles increasing water hold capacity Fig 29 In coarse sand water ows straight through In silt water does not pass through easily Fig 211 Tension cohesion theory of water movement 0 Water is polar gtwater is drawn upward o Transpiration causes constant water loss on plant leaves Plants obtain nutrients from mycorrhizal fungi gt root hairs help obtain nutrients for plants without mycorrhizae Adaptations to arid environment Stomata Sunken stomata Thick waxy cuticle Trichomes hairs above and below leaves Reduced leaves cacti C3 photosynthesis is inef cient Rubisco has a higher af nity for 02 than C02 Plants open stomata for C02 but water loss is a problem Selective pressure for alternative ways to acquire C02 under drought stress C4 and CAM pathways evolved in arid climates Fig 36 C3 photosynthesis occurs in moist habitats 0 C02 uptake and photosynthesis linked in space and time C4 photosynthesis dry habitats 0 C02 uptake and photosynthesis separated in space CAM photosynthesis very dry habitats desert 0 C02 uptake and photosynthesis separated in space and time night vs day Con ict between C02 uptake and H20 loss solved by changes in anatomy and physiology Elimination of N waste from protein is also related to water balance NH3 ammonia is toxic Aquatic organisms produce dilute water water salts ammonia Mammals produce less toxic urea Birds and reptiles produce a pasty uric acid READ PG 36 September 10 2015 Standard deviation vs standard error 0 SD data points are how the data represents variabilityspread of the data how far points are from the mean value 0 SE measures the precision of your determined sample mean how far is it from the true population mean Homeostasis temperature regulation Homeostasis is costly Principle classes of regulation 0 Homeotherms the same heat warmblooded endotherms o Poikilotherms variable heat coldblooded ectotherms Ex Set temperature point is 37 degrees C hypothalamus senses body temperature and regulates the body to keep it at the correct temperature Partial homeotherms Pythons skunk cabbage produces heat bees tuna hummingbirds Fig 323 hummingbirds don39t stop eating during the day but at night hit a torpid stage and slow down the body Summary Chapter 3 0 Light is the main source of energy for life 0 Plants have evolved ways to capture C02 while minimizing H20 loss C3 C4 CAM Most organisms perform best under narrow range of conditions important enzymes have multiple forms with varying optima Animals have evolved ways to eliminate NH4 while minimizing H20 loss CHAPTER 4 Variations in Environment Climate Water and Soil 0 Greater variation in temperatures in Northern and Southern hemisphere Fig 43 0 North has more variable temps at 60 degrees North than at 60 degrees South Fig 48 Ocean currents the sun drives these Currents rarely ever cross the equator Latitudes around the equator are called the horse latitudes or doldrums because there is no movementwindscurrents Sediments off continents deposited off shoreline 0 Current pulls the sediment and causes upwelling of the continents o Brings nutrient rich material to the lightgtgtmicrobes arisegtgtarea becomes richer 0 Fig 49 Upwelling of nutrients high productivity El Nino ENSO el nino southern oscillation A see saw of high and low pressure Extreme weather patterns observed during El Nino are essentially reserved during La Nina 0 Nina accentuates hot water toward New Guinea El Nino reversal of prevailing conditions La Nina America drought gt prevailing conditions accentuated Fig 413 El Nino vs La Nina 414 global reach of ENZO Fig 415 12 million year climate record 0 Uptake of 18O stable isotope of oxygen is reduced by 1100 for every 4 degrees Celsius drop in temperature 0 CaC03 in shells of formanifera record climate change in 180 Thermocline gt middle level of water with massive change in temperature as you go down rapid temperature change Epilimnion gt top level of water Hypolimnion gt below thermocline gtcool dense 02 depleted bottom Summer continued warming of surface results in thermal strati cation a stable situation and resistant to overturn strata established Fall water cooling at surface sinks destroys strati cation wind driven fall overturn pg 7072 Topographic and geologic features Steep slopes drain well leading to xeric conditions Bottomlands are typically moist and may support riparian forests around river even in arid lands In West hemisphere south facing slopes are warmer and drier than north facing slopes Fig 416gtgt Rainshadow caused by Sierra Nevada mountains 0 Water in clouds condenses and drops rain 0 Winds cross over into the Great Basin desert Gradients in mountains Adiabatic cooling of air masses 0 Temperature decrease of 610 degrees C for each 1000 meters increase in elevation 0 Consequences in tropics snow line reached at 5000 meters In temperate zones 1000 meters of altitude corresponds to 800km of latitude Soil Chemically and biologically attached materials overlying unaltered parent materials at earth39s surface 0 Soil contains unaltered and modi ed minerals organic matter air water living organisms Q Is there soil on Mars No because there s no life on Mars 0 Characteristics made of product of climate parent material vegetation and other organisms local topography time c Fig 421 and Table 41 Soils exist in dynamic state Soils change through time o Leaching addition of organic material addition of other materials through precipitation and dust 0 Rate of development varies In arid conditions soils may be shallow In humid tropics soils develop to 100m
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