EFB 307 Week 1
EFB 307 Week 1 EFB 307
Popular in Principles of Genetics
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Donnelly on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EFB 307 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Powell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Principles of Genetics in Biomedical Sciences at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
September 1 2015 What is a gene Made of DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DNA structure discovered 62 years ago Human genome sequenced 14 years ago containing 28000l 2000 genes Today a genome can be sequenced for lt1000 What is DNA An information molecule Trillions of cells 100x more than stars in the galaxy Each cell in a human has 46 chromosomes DNA uncoiled is 2 meters long Has 3 billion subunits ATCG Approximately 28000 genes that code for proteins that perform most life functions Noncoding regions are important in gene regulation Why study genetics Biology is the study of lifegtgenetics is a branch of biology Diversity is seen in living organisms due to differences in their environments and their genetics Nature vs nurture plays a part Ex Sex determination ls sex determined due to the environment or genes 0 BOTH o Mammals humans SRY gene is the sex determining region of the Y Chromosome Female is the default sex of humans SRY gene acts like a switching station when a female starts exhibiting male featuresgtgtrepresents differential expression of a gene depending on if it turned on or not 0 Reptiles alligator Environmental temperature determines sex Nest gt90 degrees female Nest lt83 degrees male Regulation of male and female population occurs due to competition for nesting materials Ex If there are many females in the breeding generation there will be fewer nesting materials available and therefore the eggs will be kept cooler in the sparse nests and will produce more males 0 Certain shrimp all are born male At a certain time of the year those that reach a certain size become female egg bearers due to their ability to properly provide for gestating young 0 Developmental noise random component Genes mixed with environmental effects produce different phenotypes These effects create diversity Ex Differences found among identical twins like ngerprints differences found in clones Epigenetics New eldhot topic Involves inheriting gene regulation that usually resets between generationsgtthe gene is passed down to the offspring when it normally isn39t Ex Possible link to sexuality homosexual vs heterosexual Heredity Gene ow Primarily vertical parents pass genes to offspring Some horizontal 1 species passes genes to another species Social issues associated with genetics 0 Trace paternity Learning your ancestry Eugenics Hitler39s master race some countries use it goal is to make quotbetterquot human beings Possibility of genetically engineering your offspring to avoid genetic diseases for cosmetic purposes higher intelligence 0 Issues arise because we cannot determine if choosing against a genetic disease will cause the world to lose out on someone like John F Kennedy Addison39s disease or Albert Einstein dyslexia Cloning Alternative type of reproduction NOT immortalitygtreally just making a quotdifferentaged twinquot of yourself Cloning of a human will probably happen in our lifetime Dolly the sheep was the rst cloned mammal Genetic race 0 There is no genetic difference between human races Homo sapiens neanderthalensis About 14 of DNA in modern people from Europe and Asia was inherited from Neanderthals Genetically modi ed plants 0 Disease and insect resistance improved nutrition phytoremediation and restoration They reduce the use of insecticide by 13 million lbsyr and herbicide use by 45 million lbsyr by 2009 GM plants on the market since the mid 90 s There are other bene tsconcerns due to GMs Ex Healthy papaya trees modi ed because resistant to ringspot virus Transgenic crops in the US increased over time People have modi ed food for 10005 of years September 3 2015 American Chestnut Project Project overview American chestnuts used to be abundant but there are now no American chestnut forests left The project involved 25 years of research with over 100 contributors Chestnut value Agricultural value ground to our beer edible Social value many street names have the word quotchestnutquot in them Christmas song quotchestnuts roasting on an open requot Wood products fast growing tree with a straight grain good for building Keystone forest species other species around the chestnut trees depend on it for different aspects of survival even sh rely on the tree39s aquatic insects for food Chestnut blight First seen after the introduction of the Chinese chestnut to America 1904 discovered in the Bronx Zoo Chinese chestnuts are resistant to Chestnut blight Infection 0 The blight colonizes a wound in the American trees and lives off the dead material 0 Oxalic acid is produced that creates a canker cuts of circulation and in turn kills the tree 0 Over 50 years the blight spread to infect 35 billion American chestnuts 0 Related species were infected as well Ozark Chinquapin o Blight can also live on oaks showing even if blight killed all chestnuts it would still exist on other trees o Other examples Dutchelm disease Pine bark beetle Survival American chestnuts can survive in their roots and send up shoots but stuck in Sisyphus cycle of growing back and being killed by the blight Restoration Dunstan hybridgtAmerican crossbreed with 3 Asian trees Complex hybridsgtcross American Chinese Japanese European Seguin Because all of the different species evolved in different areas they won39t populate into a forest There is a very close American backcross with the American chestnut 9375 American The closest tree is transgenic quotDarlingquot that is 9999 American Problems 0 Colossal chestnut JapaneseEuropean cross suffers Internal Kernel Breakdown Breeding vs Transgenics 0 Radiation mutation breeding accelerating natural mutation 1970 s 0 Breeding involves crossing different trees and hoping for certain results based on inherited genes 0 Transgenics the process used in the American Chestnut Project that isolates genes and removes those that are unwanted Genes tested 0 Look for the perfect resistance gene 0 Target oxalate using detoxifying from wheat which is not a pesticide as it does not kill the fungus o Reduces chance of fungus developing resistance to oxalate oxidase 0x0 0 Changes fungal lifestyle from pathogen to a saprophyte Process of growing the new tree PWF New Isolate immature embryo for approximately 2 weeks Extract the embryo 1 in 1000 will produce a somatic embryo Somatic embryo culture bioreactor kills off bacteria Transgenic event occurs each individual transformed cell line from single cell position affects gene expression Embryos germinate Shootsgtrootinggtplantlet Acclimation in a greenhouse to then be moved outside and introduced to the world Testing for blight Leaf assay makes more sense than stem assay stem assay must be done after the tree has reached 4 years of age The transgenic blight resistant American chestnut tree survived even better than the Chinese chestnut when introduced to blight Today39s work The future holds a 5 year process with a 3 million cost The USDA EPA and FDA must approve Mother tree project cross pollen with trees already in the wild Restoration will occur at mine reclamations historic sites and land of private owners