Diversity I Notes Week 2
Diversity I Notes Week 2 210
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
EFB 210 Diversity of Life Notes Week 2 Taxonomy and Systematics Describing Biodiversity Taxonomy has huge implications for natural sciences and conservation I Taxonomic History Taxonomy science of naming describing and classifying living things one aspect of systematics Taxon pl Taxa a group of organisms at any level of classi cation in the taxonomic hierarchy anywhere from kingdom to species KINGDOMPHYLUMCLASSORDER FAMILYGENUSSPECIES A Aristotle 1 Greek philosopher 2 1st Taxonomist 1st formal classi cation method 3 Classi ed organisms as either plant or animal animals land water air dwellers pant stem differences B Greeks and Romans 1 Expanded on Aristotle s methodology 2 First to organize similar organisms into genera plural for genus Latin for groups C Middle Ages 1 Began using Latin to systematically record names 2 Polynomial system series of descriptive terms added to the name of a genus to refer to an organism D Carolus Linnaeus Carl von Linne 17071778 1 Swedish biologist 2 Set out to catalog all organisms woud collect examine and describe specimens 3 Developed binomial system as shorthand uses Genus species Late 60s gave rise to Kingdom Monera housed Prokaryotes nowweuse6kingdoms Archaea Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia g4 Domain Archaea Eomain Eubacteria Domain Eukarya ll Describing Species A character recognizable trait feature or property of an organism Ex eye color leaf shape character state a discrete condition within a character Ex blue eyes lobed leaves B Process for New Species 1 Name it using a unique different binomial Latin name 2 Specify taxon rank species subspecies 3 Assign a type specimen and deposit it at an appropriate institution A holotype archetype organism on which species description is based B isotype collected at same place and time as holotype but aren t specimen used for formal description C paratype collected at different place or time than holotype 4 Describe species traditionally in Latin down to the smallest details number of hairs on leg 5 Publish name and description in peerreviewed journal C Species descriptions also need to be completed or updated when species are split apart or lumped together nothing is set on stone D Taxonomic Guidelines 1 Genus and species names must always be italicized or underlined other taxon ranks do not need any of this 2 Species names are never capitalized but all other formal names are 3 Species names are never written alone the genus name must precede it to provide context 4 Intermediate taxonomic levels can be created using appropriate pre xes Subphylum lnfraclass 5 International groups maintain rules and regulations for naming species International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ICBN International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ICZN Ill Systematics Today A Organizing biodiversity has more recently focused on evolutionary relationships systematists analyze how organisms are related based on how they evolved Systematics study of diversity or organisms and their evolutionary relationships Phylogeny evolutionary history of a taxon think family treecladogram B Constructing a Cladogram Cladistics 1 Cladograms are simpli ed visualizations of a taxon s evolutionary history 2 Character states are used to group related organisms together A synapomorphy a newly derived character state shared by all members of a taxon B clade a group containing a common ancestor and all taxa descending from it C group types Monophyletic includes the most recent common ancestor and all its descendants Paraphyletic includes the most recent common ancestor but not all of its descendants o Polyphyletic group derived from more than one ancestor Ex Birds and Mammals can be seen in instances of convergent evolution species in different locations look more similar over evolutionary time due to living in similar habitats Outgroup taxon that serves as a reference group for other taxa in a cladogram 3 Typically shows a progression from evolutionary simple to advanced Principle of Parsimony 4 Not always one correct organization but usually the most parsimonious is preferred 91015 HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH Earth is approximately 46 BILLION Years Old I Geologic Timeline Origin of Planet Earth 46 Billion Years Ago BYA Hadean Eon is hard to tell what if any A Archean Eon 38 billion 25 billion years ago ow oxygen environment 1St life appears chemoautotrophic prokaryotes 38 BYA used Nitrogen Sulfur for metabolism cyanobacteria began to photosynthesize start producing Oxygen mixed with iron in environment to produce Iron Banded Formations B Proterozoic quotearly lifequot Eon 25 billion 545 million years ago Great Oxygenation Event being released into atmosphere still toxic to lots of organisms evoution of eukaryotes ife is donated by small softbodied eukaryotes until Cambrian Explosion 1 Cryogenian Period 850 635 Million Years Ago mya quotSnowball Earthquot massive ice ages only instance where glaciations probably reached equator 2 Ediacaran Vendian Period 635 545 mya proiferation of multicellular softbodied organisms not very many fossils found from this time period soft bodied doesn t make for good preservation all life at this time lives in water C Paleozoic quotold lifequot Era 545 248 mya 1 Cambrian Period 545 495 mya Cambrian Explosion major diversi cation of form and function deveopment of hardshelled organisms arthropods great fossils record most major animal phyla appeared origin of general body plan for metazoans animals marine life still dominant trilobites nautiloids 2 Ordovician Period 495 443 mya shalow seas 1st vertebrates with true bones appear evidence of 1st life on land 3 Silurian Period 443 417 mya life on land slowly progresses 1st appearance of vascular plants major diversi cation of sh 4 Devonian Period 417 354 mya signi cant radiation of life on land tetrapods and arthropods colonize land Ex ktaaikquotmissing linkquot between sh and amphibians 5 Carboniferous Period 354 290 mya reptiles appear extensive swamp forests contained plants giant distant relatives of horsetails club mosses and ferns warm climate generated massive coal reserves 6 Permian Period 290 248 mya supercontinent Pangaea starts with ice age end with mass extinction D Mesozoic Era 248 65 mya quotAge of the Dinosaursquot fragmentation of Pangaea leads to large amount of speciation 1 Triassic Period 248 205 mya warm climate sow recovery from Permian extinction dinosaurs and mammals evolve 2 Jurassic Period 205 142 mya 1st birds appear largest land animals of all time present Sauropods 3 Cretaceous Period 142 65 mya sea levels reach highest point owering plants angiosperms appear E Cenozoic Era 65 mya present mammas dominant on land Pleistocene Epoch last major ice ages Holocene Epoch after ice age allows for species radiation Earth is relatively stable at this point in time makes conditions favorable for radiation of species Anthropocene are we in a new epoch An epoch modeled by humans ll Major Themes in Evolutionary Time A Mass Extinction Events reatively short events resulting in massive species loss despite wiping out vast numbers of species events opened niches for adaptive radiation lgreater diversity 1 EndOrdovician 85 of species lost 2 Late Devonian 80 3 Permian M largest mass extinction happened over long period of time occurred in pulses probably due to gradual environmental changes and a catastrophic event volcanic eruption meteor strike 4 EndTriassic 80 5 CretaceousTertiary aka KT Event EndCretaceous 75 extinction of dinosaurs probable cause asteroid impact intense volcanic activity dropping sea levels or all of the above 6 Holocene Ol39 Anthropocene 1 time this class has a 6th Extinction has been addressed in this class humancaused mass extinction possible extinction rate up to 100X higher than background rates especially affecting vertebrates timing corresponds with industrialization B Despite prevalence of extinctions fossils record shows erratic but constant increase in biodiversity overall net gain for the moment C History of Life was NOT NEATLY PROGRESSIVE ots of stops and starts mass extinctions D Natural selection was and still is not the only driver of evoliutionary change random mutation events END OF NOTES
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