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week 3

by: Sarah Jacobsen
Sarah Jacobsen
Introduction to Accounting
Kari Gingrich

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About this Document

no new notes this week. went over homework both class periods
Introduction to Accounting
Kari Gingrich
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Jacobsen on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ACCTCY 2010 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Kari Gingrich in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Accounting in Accounting at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 09/13/15
DRESS AND BODY UMAGE TAM2500 Week 3 Aesthetics and Ideals What is the cultural aesthetic ideal Involves senses and emotions Associated with culturally defined meaningful responses Historically significant Which is the body Ideal for women in the US 912015 Which is the American Body Ideal for Men Sexist Man Alive Couples Sexiest Female Ideals and standards in personal appearance Ideals are goals achieved by only a few peome Standards are real and achievable 912015 Body Sha Female Ideals Ideals and standards Desmond Morris s three universal standards 1994 that almost everyone can achieve at some point in life HeaHh onum Cleanliness 3 general body types Sheldon 1954 912015 Ectomorphs Thin Small bone structure Fast metabolic rate Vera Wang SP2015 Stylecom Ethiopian runners 1999 Worlds Mesomorphs Medium bone structure If they are active lots of lean mass Lower body fat David Beckham Endomorphs Larger bone structure Higher amounts of total body mass Tara Lynn Plus size model Elle Spain 912015 How would you classify Matt Damon according to Sheldon s 1954 body type system A Endomorphic B Mesomorphic C Ectomorphic i 3939l celebritybabiespeoplecom Social Bodies Our bodies are not always our own o Hide or disguise the body or its parts o Attract attention away from form that deviates from the ideal o Create optical illusion through color and line that alter appearance visually o Reconstruct the body or parts which do not measure up 912015 912015 Ideals and Pathology Influences of cultural expectations and media messages Affects both genders Image disorders Eating disorders Exercise disorders httpswwwtedcomtalkscameron russell looks aren t everything believe me i m a model hofstede s dimensions of national culture 09102015 handling inequality dependence on others emotional gender roles dealing with the unknown time perspective dealing with natural drives OWU39lbULJNl l l I handling inequality the attitude of the culture toward these power inequalities amongst us label power distance low score and power distance in high score power distance large 0 characteristics 0 respect authority and elders o rightful place 0 consume for social status power distance small 0 characteristics 0 antiauthority o inequality minimized 0 critical mind 0 respect for youth 0 consumer for use 2 dependence on others o the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members label individualism low score collectivism to high score individualism individualist characteristics oriented independence privacy and freedom differentiation 0 media main source of information coectivist characteristics we oriented interdependence harmony and sharing conformance 0 social network main source of information 3 emotional gender roes what motivates people wanting to be the best masculine or liking what you do feminine abe masculinity low score feminine to high score masculine masculine characteristics 0 material success 0 competition and money 0 consume for show Ill 0 O O O O O O O O O O feminine live to work role differentiation mothers cleaning look after children 0 characteristics 00000 O modesty who you are quality of life consume for use work to live overlapping roles fathers also clean and look after children 4 dealing with the unknown 0 the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these label uncertainty avoidance low score weak uncertainty avoidance to high score strong uncertainty avoidance high UA characteristics 0 O 0 low UA clarity structure precision and punctuality processorientation slow adoption of innovations characteristics 0 O O comfortable with ambiguity resultorientation fast adoption of innovations 5 time perspective 0 how every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future label long term orientation 0 low score short term orientation link past moreO to high score long term orientation link in future more short term orientation 0 maintain timehonored traditions and norms 0 national pride 0 do not like societal change long term orientation 0 future rewards persistence modern education adapting to changing circumstances 6 dealing with natural drives 0 the extent to which people try to control their desires and impulses label indulgence 0 low score restraint strong control to high score indulgence weak control restraint suppresses grati cation of needs 0 thrift sparing with resources perseverance indulgence instant grati cation convenience spending 0 buy now pay later enjoying life having fun Hofstede measurers Shwarts measures Behavioral preferences Desirable goals Concrete behavior Abstract goals Culturelevel values Combines both individual and culturelevel values Easier to measure across culture around the world Harder to measure across culture around the world Factors in value shift 0 1 Wealth with increases wealth individualism stronger o 2 Maturation effects people s values shift when they grow older 0 3 Generation effects effects of drastic change of conditions on certain group in a certain time period 0 4 Zeitgeist effect of drastic systemwide changes all values change eg recession BUT differences between counties remain the same Tam 2400 week 3 Culture and Value 09082015 What is value Topics 0 1 Value 0 2 Culture 3 Culture value 4 Different dimensions of cultural value Value an enduring belief tht a speci c mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposing one 0 le health democracy religious patriotism Value system values ordered in priority with respect to other values 0 le 1 Religious 2 Patriotism 3 Democracy Norms acceptable and appropriate types of behavior 0 le burping in public Value components Instrumental and terminal values rokeach lnstrumental desired modes of conduct motivators to reach end state 0 Terminal desired of existence 0 le be fairl equality le hard work achievement success Values are stable over timeage when compared across nations Why is learning about values important 0 Value will always translate into action 0 Cognitive preferred quotstate of beingquot 0 Affective emotional about the values 0 Behavioralleads to an 0 Ex Always pads 0 Ex Nike l I did it achievement 0 Ex American airline l supporting our troops patriotic What is culture Culture is Collective NOT about individuals 0 Individuals have their individual personalities but their cultures are what they share with others with the same background Learned and shared beliefs attitudes norms roles and values Expressions of culture Culture is manifested through 0 Language 0 Signs and symbols 0 Body language 0 Facial expressions 0 Gestures 0 Thinking patterns 0 Communication 0 Personal contacts 0 Written memos emails Categorization of Culture Cultures are categorized into 0 Continent Nann States Provinces and regions Languages Religion Age groups Companies 0 Behavior orientation Cultural Values National Cultures Why nation 0 Nations share cultural values 0 Culture categorized as nation 0 Has a historical bond as a group even if there are different groups 0 Cultural values learned before age 10 cannot be changed 0 Similarities even stronger for countries with shared languages and history 0 Comparing nations 0 Differences within nations are similar that differences across nanns 0 Differences within nations are smaller than differences within regions le Egyptians Sunni Muslims Egyptian Copic Christians similar in values than Jordanian Muslims Homogeneous similarities within one nation 0 le Norway Finland Heterogeneous different within one nation 0 le US Spain Dimensions of cultural values OOOOOOO o Inglegart 2 dimensions Minkov 3 dimensions Hofstede 6 dimensions 0 Schwartz 7 value types of motivational domains Globe 9 dimensions Hofstede and Schwartz are most used for marketing Why only less than 10 cultural dimensions are measures 0 Not available in certain cultures 0 le US quotdevoutsquot quotfun seekersquot 0 le France mythical emotional


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