Scientific Reasoning Week 1Lecture Notes
Scientific Reasoning Week 1Lecture Notes UI 422
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Downing Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to UI 422 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Dr. G. L. Cesarz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Ul 422 Scientific Reasoning 82515 Introduction Philosophic thought very similar to scientific thought Formal logic is about what is logically possible Think deductiver design an experiment By doing experiments you think in a pattern Deductive vs Inductive reasoning deductive is essential to mathematics Abductive reasoning is taking from what you have experienced and frame hypothesis Both deductive and inductive reasoning are necessary for abductive in Abductive reasoning you are taking from what you have experienced and encountered through observations through bumping into problems in life lab or nature You take from these and frame a hypothesis From the Hypothesis you deduce and engage in deductive reasoning to find a testable conclusion Draw out that conclusion deductively Testing it is where experimental reasoning comes in All are involved in philosophic and scientific reasoning Nothing is just a wild guess but sometimes you are forced to it in order to make a breakthrough Other forms of reasoning Categorizing Categories are a way of introducing ourselves to universal propositions You have to be able to handle universal propositions in order to work with laws law are critical in making science work Inference to the best explanation IBE The elements of IBE include all of the other elements of reasoning It is a way of systematically narrowing your options until you arrive at a conclusion Quantum Theory Richard Feynman What he means when he uses the word guess is frame a hypothesis It is a delineated or restricted guess What distinguishes science from nonscience Several sciences of today used to be known as philosophies or natural philosophies Alfred Whitehead mathematician Logical positivists insisted that the earmarks of science was that all scientific knowledge was traceable back to observation and experience Anything more than that was formal logic In place of them arose a new interest in analyzing science to find out what made it tick Two dominant themes in natural sciences One was discovering that it wasn39t so much confirming your results that led to advances in science it was being able to come up with hypothesis that were falsifiable Karl Popper ln oppositionsupplement to Popper there arose a school by Thomas Kuhn developed a theory of the nature of science called paradigm theory boundaries of a whole model umbrella theory Science really came down to puzzle solving Paradigms are the grand theories falsification does prove but what does it prove Confirmation doesn39t prove falsification does IBE becomes more critical as we move along 82715 Logical Forms Scientific thought and to those we owe debts Aristotle founder of logic Logic is a nonempirical the avoidance of contradictions necessary falsehoods are contradictions ie spherical cube it doesn39t exist clear logical thinking is required Some sciences do not rely on empirical proof Observation is not the whole truth the rest depends on reason We typically use past events to predict the future In terms of empirical evidence we never have exhaustive evidence We are rational animals Thinking involves anticipating the future remembering the past and understanding the present Modus Ponens method of putting down ifthen reasoning vs eitheror reasoning A perfectly valid concept does not let contradictions or falsehoods to fall between the cracks Deductive Formal Logic Deductive when valid Truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion Inductive Reasoning The truth of the premises does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion but supports it either strongly weakly or not at all Abductive Reasoning is inference to the best explanation gathers evidence that dovetails toward a specific conclusion Copernicus introduced hypothesis Keplars inference for the first law The only Modus Tollens One of the strengths of the Copernican revolution is that it excludes Disjunctive Syllogism
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