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Week 3 Lecture Notes

by: AJ Ponte

Week 3 Lecture Notes PSYCH 1000 - 01

AJ Ponte
GPA 3.94
General Psychology
Ines Segert

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About this Document

In this week of notes we finished up the two other of the three types of research design (correlation and experimental). Then briefly went over some introductory information about the brain, its pa...
General Psychology
Ines Segert
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ines Segert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/13/15
Week 3 Psychology Lecture Notes Types of Research Designs 1 Descriptive in week 2 notes Describe 2 Correlation Predict the relationship between two variables 3 Experimental Explain the relationship between two variables hat39s a variable again It is any factor trait or condition that can exist in iffering amounts or types Correlation Design hat is correlation It is showing or exploring an association between two ariables but NOT cause and effect Examples of Correlation studies 0 Study time vs GPA Cell phone use vs GPA Type of school private public etc vs GPA Types of correlation 0 Positive correlation both variables change in the same direction 0 Ex As a student increases time spent studying their GPA will increase as well 0 Negative correlation as one variable increases the other decreases 0 Ex As a student s cell phone use increases their GPA will decrease Correlation as a number 11 0 no correlation no association 1 or 1 perfect strong correlation The stronger the correlation the stronger or more accurate the prediction of the other variable will be Correlation is NOT cause and effect 0 We can only predict while using correlation studies 0 Cannot say quotthis causes thisquot we can only say this may happenquot 0 Correlation only allows us to predict one variable if we know the other variable Week 3 Psychology Lecture Notes 50 why use correlation studies Real world environment Use when there would be ethical reasons involved 0 Ex If one wanted to test if smoking causes a lower GPA you cannot assign a group of high school students to smoke a pack a day instead you would study the students that already smoke and what their GPA is Problems with Correlation Studies Directional Problem we can t determine which if any variable comes rst 0 Ex Does frequent cell phone use lead to bad grades or do bad grades drive a student to use their cell phone more 0 Third Variable Problem an unmeasured variable may be the cause of change in both the measured variables 0 Ex Anxiety could be the cause of both bad grades and extensive cell phone use So if we can t use correlation to assign cause and effect what do we do AN EXPERIMENT Experiment a researcher manipulates on variable to examine its effect on a second variable Experimental Design What you39ll need 0 Control variables 0 Comparison group control group 0 Identify the 0 Theory 0 Hypothesis 0 Independent variable the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter Week 3 Psychology Lecture Notes 0 Dependent variable the variable that is measured effected by the independent variable 0 Experimental group the treatment group that receives the independent variable 0 Control group the comparison group that does not receive the independent variable Example of an experimental design Theory cell phone use effects the attention and ability to focus of an individual Hypothesis if a student uses a cell phone frequently then the student s GPA will decrease Independent Variable cell phone Dependent Variable grades GPA Experimental Group students with cell phones Control Group students without a cell phone Critical step for creating groups use random assignment If random assignment is not used the groups will not be balanced and create confounding variables What is a confounding variable It is anything other than the independent variable that effects a dependent variable This happens when groups differ in something other than the independent variable for example income gender education etc Another result of failure to randomly assign groupsl Selection Bias 0 Selection bias is when a researcher purposefully puts certain individuals into groups to insure results will support their hypothesis 0 Ex Putting students who already have bad grades into the experimental group with frequent use of cell phones to see if their grades will decrease Week 3 Psychology Lecture Notes 0 Balanced unbiased groups and a control group all created from random assignment are vital for all experimental studies lnferential Statistics ls difference due to chance Does the difference re ect the impact of the individual variable 0 Results determine unlikely to be due to chance are statistically signi cant 0 The bigger the sample size the better chance to gain a statistically signi cant result Quasi Experiment Design 0 When it is impossible or unethical to manipulate variables 0 No random assignment use preexisting groups That s all for experimental design now on to the brain Brain 0 Basic Info 0 2 halves hemisphere 0 Each hemisphere has 4 lobes 0 M are the quotbumpsquot in the surface of the brain 0 Suci are the quotvalleysquot in the surface of the brain 0 Cerebral cortex 0 Thought Planning 0 Outer layer of the brain 0 Corpus Callosum 0 Connections between the left and right sides of the brain 0 Allows communication between the halves The Four Lobes o Frontal o Parietal o Occipital Week 3 Psychology Lecture Notes 0 Temporal Frontal Lobe Functions Motor cortex 0 Strip on frontal lobe 0 Controls body 0 Limited amount of space in the strip so if you develop your ability to move your thumbs when texting it will take away your ability to control or move your back muscles Emotion Planning Memory Broca s Areaeft hemisphere 0 Language speech production Phrenology A theory used to determine mental traits and personality traits The theory was relating correlating bumps on the skull with parts of the brain that control certain personality characteristics so if the aggression part of your brain was bumping out of your skull you therefore are characterized as aggressive Very popular theory but never tested scienti cally Case Studyl Phineas Gage He was a railroad builder His tamping rod went through his cheek and out his skull His personality changed but he physically recovered o Gage became very childish and could not make plans This was the rst study to show that the brain is linked to personality Techniques to Study the Brain Correlational Techniques observe behavior while measuring brain activity Recording Techniques EEG useful for looking at seizures Week 3 Psychology Lecture Notes lntracranial Recording Electrodes record where neurons re 0 Invasive 0 Ex Looking at what LSD does to the brain Imaging 0 MRI scans no activity recorded but excellent measure of structure of the brain 0 Functional MRI activity structure but there is a lag time in recording signal 0 PET Scan uses a radioactive substance to produce an activity related image however creates a weak measure of structure Experimental Techniques precisely manipulate speci c areas of the brain by touch 0 Only technique that provides cause and effect TMS magnetic eld manipulates brain activity in a speci c brain region lntracranial Stimulation manipulate the brain and activate speci c regions Deep Brain Stimulation plant an electrode in the brain to treat things like Parkinson s or depression Wilder Pen eld He was a neurosurgeon who helped map out the brain


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