Wildlife Ecology and Management Lecture Notes Week 2
Wildlife Ecology and Management Lecture Notes Week 2 390
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 390 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Sharron Farrell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Management in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Wildlife Ecology and Management Notes Week 2 9815 Habitats and Populations how muchhow many How good is it Quality or Condition What factors are driving the quotHow goodquot quality of habitat or trajectory of populations can we change the how many to achieve a desired outcome and how Habitat What is habitat Niche an organism s habitat and its behavioral adaptations GE Hutchinson 1957 an n dimensional hypervolume enclosing the complete range of conditions under which an organism reproduces itself in theory all variable relevant to life history of an organism must be included temperature X moisture gradient X light 3D plot Niche is important for us to understand all the factors necessary for the organismspecies to live in its habitat Fundamental Niche range of conditions within the organisms can potentially be found Realized Niche range of conditions within the organisms are actually found in Nature Habitat is the combination of resources and environmental conditions present in an area that produce occupancy by individuals of a given species Elements of Habitat Sum total of speci c resources needed by an organism over time and space Species Range can vary can be migratory range over a year migratory bird broader range based on of organisms living there time frame historic vs current make sure you have proper context s speciesspeci c not associated with vegetation coexisting there May or may not support survival andor reproduction at any given level habitats may vary over time Habitat Use extent a species uses space amount of time organism consumes food exploits resources or lives in area to better understand how species uses factors need to look at Use vs availability use vs nonuse presenceabsence Habitat availability accessibility of an organism to obtain consume exploit How to test for Habitat UseAvailability Sample for presencea bsence Measure resource and environmental conditions Statistical analysis Make prediction can use a map Sample animals with traps motionpointradio collar detectors point counters to produce a grid of points over certain amount of space Measures Use YES vs Nonuse N0 Many methods have margin of error can t detect species results in element of uncertainty Measure Conditions Often vegetative oor density tree height density obstructions canopy cover soi composition topography slopeelevation Remote Sensing GIS Very Useful Sonar Noise Levels Statistical Analysis Compute test statistic Use for predicting drawing conclusions sometimes on the map Evaluate and make predictionconclusion Habitat Preference inferred by examining patternscorrelations of use compared to availability or nonuse Habitat Selection decisionmaking process of an animals in determining where to be in the environment involves innate and learned behaviors involves many sources of information PA39ITERN use vs PROCESS Information for DecisionMaking Perception cognition Previous experience Persona sampling vegetation and geographytopography predators food Social dynamics conspeci cs around results in competition indicators of habitat quality Often tested with manipulative experiment variable and control is very useful in better understanding decisionmaking process of habitat selection Habitat Quality ability of the habitat combination of resources and conditions to provide for performance outcomes individua survival reproduction population persistence Ecological Trap sometimes informationcues organisms use to make decisions for habitat selection are NOT always reliable miseading indicators usualy refers to scenario when cues are decoupled usualy in situations where human activities have resulted in changes to environment an organism s otherwise appropriate selection decisions turn out to be a bad choice 1st described in 19705 by Dwernychuk and Boag terns and ducks coexisted Gulls replaced terns terns were good indicator of good habitat gulls weren t protecting the ducks but preyed on duck eggs and young 91015 SCALES AND LANDSCAPES many scales areas of resolution for studying ecological topics but no single answer to it all organisms respond differently to resources and conditions at different scales different life stages may interact with scale differently juvenile adult behaviors occur over different scales mating systems dispersal ecoogica patterns and processes change across scales what is scale of management How does that link to what we know about organism s habitat use Scale Components Grain minimum resolution of data usually de ned by sample unit polygon or pixel size Extent scale of data largest area considered size of area being studied grain and extent often correlated when we do negrain high resolution it s usually done over small space response data usually associated with grain data on yaxis grain amp extent set limits to data resolution what we can infer and understand How do we determine what scale to use want to use grain amp extent that s appropriate for question being asked provides data that enables conclusions to be drawn and applied to area in question make ecological sense for organism under investigation evauate type of scale based on organism s perspective anima cognition amp perception ex how hermit crabs utilize resources vs bear Dispersal range Houston toad vs Pronghorn may be based on basis of management goals anthropogenic perspective Landscape and Spatial Ecology species use areas that vary in space factors important to a species may differ at different scales patterns and processes across spatial extents can affect species habitat use and tness context and surrounding landscapes can in uence conditions and dynamics of an area Patchmatrix model Patch surface region that is more different from its surroundings compared to rest of environment Matrix background dominant component in landscape Corridor linear patches that connect other patches Shortcomingslimitations very simple not always enough resolution hard to de ne patches in environment Mosaic model variety of cover types or landscape Landscape composition or relative area of coverage for each classi ed type of cover still uses idea of patches in that each element or cover type is described as a discrete unit Patch metrics size shape con guration perimeter interior distance connectivity number of patches function barrier or conduit permeability ability to move through matrix Landscape Continuum Model variegation model uses continuum of cover categories intact cover vs varigated cover vs fragmented cover vs relictual simiar to HSM SDM or RSF Acknowledges that other organisms look at landscapes differently from how we do thus how we classify it incorporates one or more species unique habitat requirements Creates contour of specieshabitat relationships across space intensity of use quality organism s use and performance in space creates visualization ofthelandscape Limitationsshortcomings requires delineation of cover categoriesclasses chalenges of scale what about the organism Patchmatrix and mosaic model concepts Edge to interior ratio Linear distance of edge Area of Interior ratio differs depending on species preferences size of patches shape what we see as edges vs functional edges for species of interest important to take organisms perspectives into consideration some species bene t from different cover types at an edge snakes whitetailed deer different types of food access to habitat Others do not avoidance of competitors Speciesspecies interactions differences in thermal gradient wind Ecotone discontinuity in environmental conditions usually measured as transition between 2 different vegetationcover types Corridors and Connectivity see hedgerows roads waterways inear patches ba rrier or conduit l Depends on Organism neither What makes an effective corridor Are corridors essential Are they a good investment PROS CONS keeping species from increased mortality could introduce exotic species maintain genetic health of populations little data to support hypothesis expensive to make Fragmentation of habitat Think speciesspeci c has 3 components loss of total area of speci c habitat leads to lower carrying capacity reduction in mean patch size altering characteristics for size DOES matter increase in mean distance between patches Area Sensitivity Think speciesspeci c area needs to meet speci c requirements type of vegetation available presence use survival mating amp reproduction type of landscape can be linear or threshold relationship various sensitivities Island Biogeography Extinctions should occur less frequently on large islands larger local population sizes if colonization occurs at the same rate on large and small islands large islands will support a greater diversity of species Recommendations for protected area design Diamond 1975 arge reserve better than small reserves singe undivided reserve better than several small if divided few large reserves better than many small reserves should be spaced equally from another not linearly lf reserves are linear they should be connected with corridors lf reserve is small and isolated it should be circular and not near Use these ideas and apply them to patches even landbased ones may apply to some species and not others SLOSS Single Large or Several Small DEPENDS ON THE SPECIES END OF NOTES
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