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Week 2 Notes—Bio

by: SophieSol

Week 2 Notes—Bio BISC 1005

GPA 3.92
The Biology of Nutrition and Health
Scully, T

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Here are my notes from Week 2 of class, I hope they are helpful!
The Biology of Nutrition and Health
Scully, T
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/13/15
Microbiome cont 0 All the organisms which live in symbiotic relationships with humans Changes constantly Every aspect of your life impacts the diversity What does it affect Digestionabsorption Immune system allergies autoimmune diseases and general defense 0 Microbes have mutualistic relationships with you 0 Development 0 Relationship of microbiome autism Stresspsychological issues 0 Consumption of materials affects body Amphibiosis 0 Switch hitters Transitions between one type of speciesspecies interaction ot another e Commensalism to exploitation Trophism 0 Movement of food from one organism to another Producers make food Consumers ingest food 0 Marine Food web image Many interactions between different organisms are possible Food an organic substance 0 Organic At least one carbon atom and one hydrogen atom Hydrocarbon Inorganic source C02 0 How is it produced An organism s ability to produce organic substances from an inorganic source 0 Autotrophs produce their own food 0 We are heterotrophs because we do not produce our own food Who makes food vs who eats it o Autotrophs Chemo prokaryotes Do not encounter very often 0 Transform light energy into chemical energy Photo prokaryotes protists plants anything that is green or has color that can make own food from sunlight o Heterotrophs O Photo proka ryotes Chemo us prokaryotes plants fungi protists and animals 0 Can t make our own food rely on autotrophs to make food for us in the form of sugar that we can then use to make other substances 0 Types of energy 0 Potential Stored ability Comes in the form of 0 Nuclear o gravitational o kinetic mechanical sound Evolution s in uence 0 Many mechanisms 0 4 mechanisms that come into play Mutation Gene ow Genetic drift Natural selection Becoming more adapted to environment based on environment at that time Prokaryotes 0 Single celled o Simplistic structure and function Archaea live in mainly extreme environments Bacteria live everywhere 0 How do they exert pressure on us When they are pathogens can affect our system Extracellular 0 Multiply outside Produce a substance that causes harm Cause an imbalance in our normal ora Normal ora microbiome organisms naturally found in and on us that help us maintain normal func ons Intracellular 0 Enter into cells and can survive Produce a substance that causes harm Kills the cell by causing it to burst o Apoptosis cell death Usually you can digest cells for its components but apoptosis comes into play when bacteria prevent this from happening Toxins o Endotoxins 0 Something structural helping cell unintentional that is there for a different purpose Lipopolysaccharide o Exotoxins 0 Produce mainly as defense Proteins Top diseasecausing foodborne pathogen Viruses 58 Salmonella 11 Top hospitalizations Salmonella 35 Viruses 26 Top deaths Salmonella 28 Foodborne illnesses typically take place in places where there are a lot of sick people in con ned areas less regulation 0 How to prevent illness 0 Cook food thoroughly Don t prep veggies on same cutting board as raw meat 0 Salting o Pickling drying 0 Be clean 0 But toxoplasma you can get from food and CATS Cat litter doesn t affect cats but we can absorb it from handling litter 0 Causes abnormal behavior More risky and sexual behavior Good bacteria 0 Used in food production Yogurt live active cultures Cheese Euka ryotes Pickling o Becoming complicated because of symbiosis Oxygen was produced as a byproduct from one cell absorbing energy from another in the form of sugar Interaction was crucial in evolution More mitochondria in muscle cells because these are the cells that contain energy 0 Protists Not many in our food Algae o Photosynthetic 0 But they are very important food to other organisms o Phytoplankton o Zooplankton 0 Plants Many times a lot we don t interact with o Ferns Gymnosperms pine nuts Angiosperms a owering plant 0 What we mainly consume Green photoautotrophs Roots below ground 0 Circulatory system Moves minerals and water to photosynthetic cells Waterminerals C02 Shoots above ground 0 Leaves and stem cells 0 Perform photosynthesis Sunlight pigments o Stomata pores of the leaves aows carbon dioxide in 0 Components Stem Leaves Flowers main focus Parts we eat 0 Below ground vegetation o Tubers Can cut them up and generate a new plant 0 Roots o Bulbs 0 Above ground vegetation 0 Leafy greens 0 Fruit ripened ovaries 0 Fruit Flowers 0 Most hermaphroditic Both male and female parts 0 Produce owers to attract pollinators 0 Want different parents to create diversity rather than producing with its own breed 0 Produce fruit to attract seed dispersal animals 0 Brief review 0 Life is made of elements that come together to form substances Contribute to making abioticbiotic world 0 From bottom to top Common universal ancestor Cell based 0 Can reproduce 0 Through DNA 0 Can grow and develop 0 lnvolves taking in and storing energy 0 Can control internal environment through homeostasis and detect what is going on outside of their cells 0 They evolve o Respond to what occurs in outside world and they change Food Nutritional strategies 0 Take inorganic substances COz and make it into organic substances food These are autotrophs Some do this through chemical processes 0 Chemoautotrophs Do not usually encounter these they are all prokaryotes o Photoautotrophs The ones we do encounter Some are prokaryotes others are protists and plants 0 Take organic substances and make their own organic substances These are heterotrophs Can be photoheterotrophs o Prokaryotes Or chemoheterotrophs 0 Us 0 And prokaryotes 0 And protists fungi and animals 0 Some rare plants can do this process Prokaryotes o Pathogens External or internal Produce endotoxin or exotoxin both of which cause damage to cells and normal functioning 0 Good ones Part of microbiome and food production 0 le ln yogurt and cheese production 0 How do we get fruit 0 Most owers are hermaphroditic having both male and female parts Male parts include a stamen Has a lament that can project out of ower and project anther which contains sperm which is really pollen Female parts collectively carpel o Stigma o Topmost part has a sticky substance that pollen can stick to o Sperm travels down style And into the ovary into the structures that contain the ovule where individual eggs reside 0 Different fruits 0 Simple fruit Formed from one ower that has one ovary le Pea fruit Assessor fruit apple 0 Aggregate fruit One ower multiple ovaries le Raspberry 0 Multiple fruit Formed from multiple owers 0 le Pinapple 0 Light Power 0 Photosynthetic eukaryotes have specialized organelles called chloroplasts They were engulfed early one by prokaryotes became a part of the cell 0 Not all cells can perform photosynthesis 0 To make food plants need Sunlight free Water and minerals roots Carbon dioxide stomata pores C02 goes in and out Pigments chloroplasts 0 Step 1 light reactions Photosystem light energy is converted to electrical to chemical energy 0 What is light 0 Photons These are packets of energy and exhibit wavelike characteristics Measured in wavelengths Part of the electromagnetic spectrum 0 What they can utilize during conversion is based on their pigments o What are pigments 0 Any substance that can absorb light energy 0 What they do with it depends on the pigments and where they are located 0 Color is determine by wavelength it re ects 0 Light is converted into heat light or is transformed into chemical energy photosynthesis 1 Antennae complexreaction center a Arrangement of pigments b Capture energy from light c Pass energy to chlorophyll a i Only type that can make conversion of light energy into electricity 1 Located in reaction center 2 Electron Transport Chain a Energy is used to produce ATP and NADPH i Both move on to Calvin Cycle ii Every single organisms use ATP 1 Key player in terms of energy carrier 2 Receives energy in the form of phosphate groups There are three phosphate groups tri phosphate iii NADPH quotpquot for photosynthesis and FADH2 and NADH 1 Electron carriers store energy in electrons


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