Week 3 Class Notes
Week 3 Class Notes CHEM 111 (Section 64)
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaymi Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 (Section 64) at Ball State University taught by Christofield, Zubkov in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
September 9 2015 Polymer a very large molecule that is made up of a number of smaller molecules repeatedly linked together H H H H H H H H H H I l C C C C C C C C C C l l H H H H H H H H H H Monomer the small molecules that can be linked to form a polymer G G Ions charged species formed from a single neutral atom monoatomic ion or from a group of atoms polyatomic ion are formed by the loss or gaining of electrons have a net charge positive or negative Cation an atom that loses one or more electrons positive charge Metals usually form cations because they hold their electrons less strongly and so the electrons on the outermost outside are lost Lose an electron ion quotdecreasesquot Li 9 e39 Li means 3 protons 3 electrons for Li 9 3 protons 2 electrons Mg 9 2e Mg2 means 12 pros 12 elec 9 12 pros 10 elec Anion an atom that gains 1 or more electrons charge Nonmetals usually form anions because they hold on to their electrons strongly Add an electron ion swells Br e 9 Br means 35 protons 35 electrons 9 35 protons 36 electrons S 2 e39 9 32 means 16 protons 16 electrons 9 16 protons 18 electrons Monatomic ion Contains only one atom Figure 211 page 54 Periodic Table and Ions Group 1A elements form 1 ions Group 11A elements form 2 ions Group V11A elements form 1 ions Group VIA elements form 2 ions Group VA elements form 3 ions Transition metals can lose varied number of elements Polyatomic ion contains more than one atom NO339 nitrate ion ate or ite oxoanion oxygen another element OH39 hydroxide ion CN39 cyanide ion NH4 ammonium ion whole group misses electron Molecular Compounds Ionic Compounds Distinct molecules with a No distinct groups distinct composition Continuous repeating pattern Gaps between the molecules You can point to an ion and You can point to an atom and cannot tell to what it is bonded tell to what particular to neighbors it is bonded You can only come up with the smallest unit of the pattern Nonmetal nonmetal Metal nonmetal Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds Potassium sulfur K 5239 K K SZ39 9 neutral can be repeated as many times as wanted and will still be 0 K2S Aluminum oxygen A13 02 A13 A13 0239 0239 0239 A1203 September 11 2015 Formula Unit of an ionic compound the smallest neutral unit Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Name positive ion first followed by name of negative ion Name LiBr 9 Lithium Bromide Name Ang 9 Silver Sulfide Monoatomic Ions Figure 211 If the charge on the cation can have more than 1 value use a roman numeral to indicate charge CuCl 9 copper I chloride CuClz 9 copper II chloride Same rules for ionic compounds that contain polyatomic ions NaN03 9 sodium nitrate A12SO4 9 aluminum sulfate NiSO4 9 Nickel 11 sulfate Naming Binary Molecular Compounds 2 nonmetals 1 Name the first element listed 2 Add ide to the root of the second element name 3 Use prefixes mono di tri etc to show the number of atoms of each element only used when you know the exact number of atoms Prefix mono is not used for the first element NO 9 nitrogen monoxide N02 9 nitrogen dioxide P203 9 diphosphorous trioxide SClz 9 sulfur dichloride Naming Simple Acids Acid gives off H when dissolved in water Nitric acid HNOz 9 N0339 The name of the ion that the acid derived from can be named without the H Acids made from ate anions are called ic acids Acids made from ite anions are called ous acids Acids made from ide anions are called hydro ic acids Acids made from per ate anions are called per ic acids Acids made from hypo ite anions are called hypo ous acids Naming Simple Bases Base gives off OH when dissolved in water Name as ionic compound NaOH 9 sodium hydroxide CaOH2 9 calcium hydroxide Hydrate an ionic compound that contains water molecules weakly bound in the crystals several H20 per formula unit For example CuSO4 5H20 OWL NOTES Nomenclature of Main Group Cations Metals tend to lose electrons and form cations in ionic compounds Cations of the main group metals have a charge equal to their group number They are named simply by stating the element name ion Example Magnesium Mg is a group 2A metal Cation name magnesium ion Cation charge 2 Cation symbol Mg2 Nomenclature of Monoatomic ide atoms Nonmetals tend to gain electrons and form anions in ionic compounds Monoatomic anions of the nonmetals are composed of a single element and end in ide The charge of a monoatomic anion is equal to the group number 8 Example Sulfur S is a Group 6A nonmetal Anion name Sulfide ion Anion charge 68 2 Anion symbol SZ39