Week 2 Notes: GEOG
Week 2 Notes: GEOG GEOG 1003
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1003 at George Washington University taught by Rain, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Society and Environment in Geography at George Washington University.
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Pretty much a direct copy of the powerpoint bullets that are available on blackboard
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Instructional Case study No1 CA s Channel Island fox was going into extinction but 0 10 years later there are 650 foxes Most successful ever of any animal from endangered species list 54 million spent 0 Channel Island Fox 0 O 0 Players Bald eagles Golden eagles o The DDT pesticide killed them off Farmers ranchers Pigs National park service Why is it a success story Clearcut example of what worked Gives an idea for future issues Lessons Says something about ability to manage ecosystem We need to be more careful with what we are doing Instructional Case Study No 2 Quahogs quotKoHogsquot a kind of clam that like a certain niche O 0 Like less salty water and are therefore attracted to estuaries mix of salt water fresh A single one can lter a gallon of water every hour Good for having clean water 0 Can tolerate hypoxia reduced oxygen in water 0 Comes about mostly through pollution Prey series for blue crabs Dramatically rebounding numbers 0 Setting Narragansett Bay in Rhode Island 0 O O O O 0 Heavy human in uence very populated a lot of boats A lot of shore lines have been hardened No vegetation along water s edge instead there are docks or seawalls etc Trophic cascade like food web of blue crab Troph food When you have multiple species acting with each other conditions change and changes in numbers change Watershed large for this bay Hypoxia is affected by changes in water system Chesapeake bay watershed O 0 Over 64000 miles So big that it involves several states o On map green deciduous forestevergreen forestmixed forest l fairly healthy watershed Wasn t always the case 0 Bay formed when rising sea levels after last ice age ooded Susquehanna river valley 0 Now shallow in many areas Ships can t go on it and has a recreational use Foodwebs 0 Primary sources sources of vegetation that live on bottoms of waterways 0 Shows who eats who 0 Primary producers herbivores primary consumers secondary tertiary The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water ie Lakeocean o In healthy scenario Plant life oxygen animals 0 Unhealthy Lack of benthic community How can ecosystems be managed given 0 Complexity 0 Level of interactions le Fresh rain water going into sewage system dc water is reacting 0 Changing conditions 0 Unforeseen consequences Is it enough now to simply quotleave nature alonequot or do ecosystems need to be actively managed 0 Generally people think that we should actively manage ecosystems Saves money We cause problems in the rst place Community ecology o In ecology a community of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time Maps 0 Google earth invented by Michael T Jones Chief Technology Advocate Discussed Elisee Reclus o Anarchist cartographer not many of them 0 Got banned from France from writing a manifesto against the government of Versailles Why waste ink on national boundaries 0 He was interested on nature interaction with planet 0 Wrote 19volume book Concerned with questions of geography distribution and diversity 0 What people wear how they celebrate marriage 0 What trees grow there What does landscape look like Etc Thought geography was more than looking at boundaries 0 Soul parent of Bioregionalism 0 De ned in terms of the unique patterns of natural characteristics that are found in a speci c area le De ne region by water region we live in 0 Main features are found throughout a continuous geographic terrain such as climate seasonality landforms soils watersheds and native plants and animals These de ne area as a biosystem 0 We can shape environments we live in and environments in turn shape us Potomac River watershed o If we were forced to live within a small speci c area there would be a lot of diversity 0 Concern about loss of individual unique characteristics in biosystems quoteat within your bioregionquot eat strawberries when are produced not from CA 0 do what makes our region unique to us multistage process 0 his focus is what are the individual characteristics that individuals do that make this place unique 0 environmental determinism 0 environment shaping us Reclus thought that it goes both ways that s the difference 0 Wildlife in an Urban Setting 0 Deer Ruminants live in a variety of biomes ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest Thrive in the absence of predators 0 Canadian Goose Doing well in absence of predators Problem of overpopulation due to removal of natural predators and an abundance of safe manmade bodies of water near food sources 0 Raccoon Adaptability Uses urban areas as habitat First sighted in Cincinnati Often live with and near humans Cause substantial food loss Cont from last class Cockroach 0 Have lived on earth for 300 million years 0 Like to live around humans due to our waste production 0 Prefer warm conditions in buildings Crow Now considered to be among the world s most intelligent animals Omnivorous diet Hit hard by west Nile virus Live among humans Appreciate heat we produce OOOOO Today 0 Landscape and the idea of place 0 Nature is a mirror for humans MC Escher s hand drawing Organismenvironment coupling 0 Meaning of Natural 0 So many different de nitions 0 We construct natural realm and we think of it as being a part of us o It is a term for the allencompassing reality in which people and society are constituent parts 0 Environmentalists tend to view nature as a domain that is separate or apart from society ad often consider humans to be violating the natural order Nature is not a natural state species are competing with each other and against others 0 Great amount of competition and instability o Is this the natural order 0 Constantly striving for balance 0 Three angles or challenges to this perspective The idea of pristine nature has its own speci c historygeography t evolves Central park is not natural it was designed by someone who was aiming to show how things should be Aesthetic appeal of trees came later Our ability to identify changes in the natural world as being tremendously expended by environmental science but many environmental changes remain invisible in everyday life 0 Any changes in environment take a long time to process A sense of naturalness can be designed into landscapes ie Central park 0 So 0 What do people consider natural 0 How culturally speci c is it 0 Can something natural be engineered to seem that way Deep history 0 Accounting for coevolution of humans and the environment Longue dur e long haul placebased history 0 Talk about centuries as apposed to years Humans transformed their environments using technology and then grew in numbers 0 For all but the last few thousand years of 2million years existence humans have obtained subsistence by a combination of gathering foodstuff and hunting animals People lived in small mobile groups 0 Most successful and exible way of life adopted by humans and the one that caused the least damage to natural ecosystems Partly because there weren t that many of us Also somewhat brutal 0 Flexible production systems 0 Humans could spread across the face of the globe into every terrestrial ecosystem and to survive not just in favorable areas with easily obtained food but also in the rigorous conditions of the artic o Paleolithic quotold stonequot human life Stone age lasted 250000 generations Paleolithic environmental transformations Clearing of vegetation 0 Fire 0 Warmth scaring animals making vegetation attracting grazing animals 0 A type of technology Accumulation of stuff and waste 0 Trampling of soil 0 Archaeological evidence 0 Evidence of habitation Lived in many regions of world 0 quotMen were out hunting and women took care of womenquot thought is not that clearcut o Roles can cross over they were pretty equal 0 0 Small environmental impact 0 Limited technology use 0 Used tools Pleistocene extinctions 39overkill in north America and Europe 0 Between 20000 and 10000 years before present Humans came along and o Megafauna something that weighs more than 300 lbs became extinct 0 Were humans to blame Paul martin sees a clear correlation between human arrival and animal extinction Clovis double edged and sharper stone blade Animals were slow not used to predators numbers can t rebound super fast had to stay near water holes and reproduced slowly o Other theories Climate change Drought Interspecies competition Some species survived ie elephants bison bears Attitudes toward nature Cave paintings and small stone sculptures o Rituals associated with hunting of animals 0 Paintings 17000 years old 0 Animals may have represented gods Animism animals have spirits worshipped and feared as the source and meaning of life 0 Joseph Campbell 0 Nature was worshipped in the form of animals because the success of the hunt was critical for their survival Venues of Willendorf o Sculpture big breasts and stomach l fertility Would carry with while hunting to remind him of home 0 Reproductive anatomy was exaggerated How are we similar to Paleo Are we paleo 0 Diet 0 Physical attraction 0 competition between people 0 being in small groups and doing activities together 0 fear
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