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by: Alexis Fajardo

2-theself.pdf PSY 360 LEC (46763)

Alexis Fajardo
GPA 3.1
Social Psychology
Adam Lazarewicz

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About this Document

Topic #2 week 2 The self . Instructor Lecture outline in black, my notes in orange.
Social Psychology
Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Fajardo on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 360 LEC (46763) at University of Arizona taught by Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 09/13/15
Tuesday 912015 Psychology 360 Social Psychology Lecture Outline 2 The Self Question 1 What is the self Who am I selfconcept Person s beliefs about their own attributes and characteristics Who you consider yourself to be 0 Organized into selfschemas schemas mental structure framework that organizes information categories 0 New information sorted into schemas gt understanding 0 Tend to sort in ways consistent with existing schemas positive selfschemas o Sedikides and Green 2000 selective attention only to attering info better memory 0 Bahrick et al 1996 college students recall high school exam scores as being better than they actually were 0 Swann and Pelham 2002 college students prefer roommates who see them in schemaconsistent ways 0 More likely to ask for new roommate if they are seen in schemainconsistent ways even if positive 0 Resistant info that is contrary to selfschema negative selfschemas 0 Story 1998 better memory for un attering info We tend to think feel remember and behave in ways that are consistent with our selfschemas Inconsistent info is ignored and or discontinued working selfknowledge o Selfconcept is multifaceted 0 Family of selvesquot within similarities 0 Some selves more prominent and accessible than others Cantor and Kihlstrom 1987 o Aspects of selfconcept brought to mind by or appropriate for the situation possible selves Markus and Nurius 1986 0 Ideas about o The kind of person you might become possible selves o The kind of person you would like to become ideal selves o The kind of person you should become ought selves o The kind of person you fear you will become feared selves 0 Actual self V possible ideal oughtfeared selves Objective SelfAwareness theory Duval amp Wicklund 1972 0 Attention usually pointed outwards 0 USA gt bad moods depression 0 Chronic USA gt higher rates of alcoholism anxiety disorders suicidal thoughts 0 Selffocused attention USA gt awareness of discrepancies between actual self and ideal self 0 Tension 2 ways to reduce OSA tension 1 Reduce discrepancy a Improve actual selfawareness lower standards for possible selves 2 Escape selfawareness Reducing discrepancies The Halloween study Beaman et al 1979 Ps 349 trickortreaters IVs mentioned did not mention a standard only one piece of candy gt left trick ortreat alone to take candy from bowl withwithout a mirror DV of trickortreaters who quotstolequot candy took more than one piece results Question 2 Where does the self comefrom Internal sources of self introspection o awed source of selfinfo 0 Busy processing external info H H o optimistic bias aboveaverage effectquot affective forecasting predicting emotional responses to future events We re really bad at selfperception theory Bem 1972 o Infer internal status by observing our own behavior 0 happy because we smilequot o Introversion extraversion selfesteem ect facial feedback hypothesis 0 Strack et al 1988 cartoons are funnier with pencil in teeth 0 looking in mirror amplifies effects 0 Zajonc 1989 ah e u 0 Ah e gt elevated mood 0 U 00 gt lowered mood o Meditation I Ah e gt lowered body temp intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation 0 Think selfperception what happens when we receive extrinsic motivators overjustification effect extrinsic motivation can undermine intrinsic o Lepper et al 1973 visited preschool 3x 0 Visit 1 opportunity to play with colorful markers I All did equally intrinsically motivated 0 Visit 2 3 groups I Draw with markers I Draw with markers for reward I Draw with markers surprise reward 0 Visit 3 put markers out at free time I DV of time spent with markers Thursday 9315 Quiz 2 becomes available today at 145 pm Complete by September 22 Quiz 1 still available External sources of self mirror test Gallup 1977 great apes selfrecognition in mirror Takes apes finger and dips it into paint then puts their print on their forehead 0 Paint splotch on forehead while anesthetized 9 wipe brow o Humans 18 months 0 Elephants bottlenose dolphins and Eurasian magpies 0 Apply red yellowblack sticker to throat only scratch at red and yellow mirror What study self is a social psychology class 0 Person x situation interaction 0 Self social concept in part 0 Informed socially in uences social thought and behavior social comparison theory Festinger 1954 0 Evaluate self by comparing yourself to other people 0 Define ourselves using distinguishing features 0 Older college studentsage families gender etc 0 Self 9 social construct 0 When All the time especially when objective standards aren t available 0 With whom Generally similar others but what about when facing failure When we aren t doing so well we compare ourselves to others doing worse to raise our self esteem social aspect of emotional self 0 Schacter 1959 prefer waiting for painful shocks with others 0 Painless shock other not in experiment 9 wait alone less uncertainty basis for comparison twofactor theory of emotion Schacter amp Singer 1962 IVS DV results 0 Schacter and Singer 1962 twofactor theory of emotion o Emotionphysiological arousal cognitive interpretation of physical state 0 Ps injectedlnot injected with epinephrine 1 Epinephrine injection a Injected forewarned about effects plausible explanation for physical reaction b Injected not forewarned physical reaction with no explanation c Not injected no physical reaction to explain 2 Left alone with euphoriclangry confederate a Ps match behavior to confederate but only when injected and not forewarned i One was warned the other wasn t so they are not sure how to react and why they would react to that 0 Culture and the self 0 Basic cultural divide I Individualism emphasis on independence selfreliance o Eg US Australia Great Britain Canada Netherlands I Collectivism emphasis on interdependence social harmony o Eg Venezuela Columbia Pakistan 0 Personal striving 0 Independent 9personal achievement overestimate contributions to group take credit for success blame others for failure 0 Interdependent 9 underestimate self less selfdirected attention 0 Independent selfconcept 9 belief in uniqueness culture and the self individualism vs collectivism Markus amp Kitayama 1991 cultural in uences on personal striving cultural in uences on selfconcept Question 3 Why does the self matter affective behavioral cognitive components Selfdefiniton identity 0 Cognitive Aspects of self eg schemas9 predictive of behavior 0 Behavioral Source of meaning emotion o Affective implicit egotism self good so things associated with self good Initials birthdays etc 2000 election people with last names beginning with B or G were more likely to donate money to Bush or Gore campaigns respectively Maybe bigger life decisions Wonder if this impacts anything else Pelham 2002 Names and Places of Residence Mildred and Virginia Milwaukee had Mildred Virginia Beach had Virginia lack and Phillip Iacksonville had Iack Philadelphia had Phillip Maybe people just name their kids after the place 0 Trend holds for last names too I Disproportionate number of cali last name starts with quotCAquot Not just longlasting names in a location 0 Moving rates skewed more Georgia s moving to Georgia Virginias to Virginia etc Disproportionate of Paul s in St Paul Across US Ierry Dennis and Walter are equally popular names each 042 of population 0 Dennis is 2x more likely to be the dentist We take steps to control the self to protect the self both in our eyes and others selfregulation Controlling thoughts feelings or behaviors to achieve goals possible sleves Self control as a limited resource Muraven and Baumeister 2000 Vohs and heatherton 2000 0 IV dieters non dieters watch boring documentary with candy and chips within arm s reach high temptation 10 feet away low temptation o DVgrams of ice cream eaten in subsequent taste test 0 Non dieters with high temptation ate a little more ice cream dieters with high temptation are way more ice cream ironic mental processing Wegner 1994 the harder you try to inhibit thoughtfeelingbehavior the less likely you are to succeed 0 Don t think of a white bear 0 Jury disregard that evidence 0 Don t think about how long its taking to fall asleep 0 Don t laugh when its inappropriate 0 Don t think about that itch on the tip of your nose 0 Selfregulation effort 9 cocern about feeling 9 ironic operating processquot seeking that information selfesteem overall positive and or negative evaluations of self often compartmentalized depends on what you re doing general stability across lifespan demographics of SE Kling et al 1999 higher in men barely Twenge and Crocker 2002 African American SE higher than white SE higher than Hispanic Asian Native American But remember correlation does not causation Why is selfesteem so important to us 2 big answers 1 sociometer theory Leary and Baumeister 2000 a Social bonds inherently important b Mind translates acceptance rejection into highlow SE 2 terror management theory awareness of existence awareness of nonexistence Awareness of inevitable mortality 9 terror Potential meaninglessness How do we manage the terror Problem We desire meaning but mortality will eventually strip us of the ability to pursue it e Solution Pursue immortality i If you believe in afterlife Literal immortality ii Symbolic immortality f Managing your existential terror i Invest in cultural worldview beliefs values cherished ideals etc 1 Source of meaning personal cultural ii Protect self esteem 1 Feel good about being valuable contributor to society 2 Distract us from thoughts of mortality TMT Prediction Thinking about your own mortality should make you cling more strongly to your worldviewI pursue selfesteem 9999 Greenberg et al 1992 IVs participants got positivelneutral personal feedback 0 Watch videotape about deathno death DVanxiety after watching tape Neutral videoneutral feedback low Neutral video positive feedback higher Death video neutral feedback high Death video positive feedback low How do we protect selfesteem selfevaluation maintenance theory basking in re ected glory Are positive illusions healthy Yes No 2 selfpresentation goals 1 strategic selfpresentation 2 selfverification selfmonitoring


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