Note #1 GEOL 201 - 001
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by ach0261 on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 201 - 001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by `Lori D. Snyder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Geology of Our National Parks and Monuments in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Geology 201 note 1 How does earth change with depth Ernst Mantle Euler Core Inner Core continental crust 3540km oceanic crust 7km 2900km molten solid Are some layers stronger than others Lithospheric Mantle uppermost mantle that is in the lithosphere relatively strong solidly attached 0 Asthenosphere mostly solid hotter and flow under pressure Why do some regions have high elevations if the crust is thinner than 30 to 35 km the area will probably below the sea level but it can still be part of the continent regions underlain only by oceanic crust are well below sea level Continental Crust What types of minerals compose different parts of earth uppermost part of the continental crust consists of sedimentary rocks oceanic crust contains basalt and igneous rock upper mantle consists of silicate minerals similar to those in oceanic crustpagiocase olivine and pyroxene most common minerals in lower mantle are Fe IVIg silicates and oxides outer core composed mostly of molten iron with lesser amount of nickel scattered crystals but not abundant inner core composed of a crystalline iron and iron nickel alloy What elements are common in the crust the most abundant alkali and alkali earth metals calcium Ca potassium K sodium Na and magnesium IVIg combine with silicon Si oxygen 0 and aluminum Al in silicate minerals most abundant is oxygen almost all tied up in solid minerals second most abundant is silicon combines with oxygen to form silicon oxygen 0 most abundant transition metal is iron Fe What elements are common in the whole earth 0 most abundant metals magnesium IVIg In crust and upper mantle occurs mostly in silicate minerals In lower mantle present in oxide minerals oxygen 0 almost all of it is in silicate and oxide minerals silicon is the third most abundant nearly all bonded with oxygen 0 iron Fe and nickel Ni are abundant in core occur in silicate and oxide minerals in mantle and crust sulfur S is common in alloys and magmas in the core What elements are common in the universe hydrogen H helium He two lightest elements are the main components in sun nebulae and many other large astronomical objects carbon C nitrogen N oxygen 0 and neon Ne What kinds of seismic waves do earthquakes generate seismic waves earthquakes generate vibrations that travel through rocks body waves waves that travel inside earth surface waves waves travel on the surface of earth 0 most waves are a series of repeating crests and troughs Vost earthquakes occur at depth travel as body waves when body waves reach surface some energy is transformed into new waves that only travel on the surface surface waves Surface waves amp body waves P wave surface waves 3 horizontal surface wave 5 wave vertIcal surface wave 1 1 r double wavelength mme body waves primary wave Pwave compresses the rock in the same direction it propagates Travel through solids and liquids the fastest seismic wave secondary waveS waves shear the rock slide to slide or up and down and perpendicular to the direction of travel How do seismic waves travel through materials earthquakes generates seismic waves which radiate out from the source in all directions the path that any part of the wave travels is a seismic ray most seismic waves encounter boundaries between materials with different physical properties causing the waves to reflect speed up or slow down some energy is bent as it crosses the boundary the process of bending is called refraction How seismic waves refract through different materials if a seismic wave passes into a material that causes it to slow down it will be refracted away from the interface at a steeper angle if a descending seismic ray passes from a slow material to a faster one it will be refracted to a shallower angle if a rising seismic ray passes from a fast material to a slower one it will be refracted upward toward the surface How do seismic waves travel through earth39s crust and mantle refraction causes seismic waves to take curved paths through the earth earthquakes send seismic waves into crust and mantle both waves are reflected back toward the surface waves in nabtke travel faster than crust waves travel through the crust arrive sooner than mantle waves travel through mantle arrive at surface first How are seismic waves used to examine earth39s deep interior p waves speed up and slow down as they pass different kind of material the velocity depends on 1 how easily the rocks are compressed 2 how rigid the material is 3 the density of the material velocity increases with depth in mantle and core IVIid ocean ridges lVIid ocean ridges are broad symmetrical ridges that cross the ocean basins 2 to 3 km higher than the average depth of the seafloor associated fracture zones encircle much of the globe Mid ocean Spreading Center Continent Aquot Continent Oceanic Crust Oceanic Crust How do plates move relative to one another plates are moving relative to one another two plates can move away toward or sideways to relative to one another divergent boundary two plates move apart relative to one another convergent boundary two plates move toward one another transform boundaryztwo plates move horizontally past one another What happens at mid ocean ridges mid ocean ridges are divergent plate boundaries where new oceanic lithosphere forms as two oceanic plates move apart mid ocean ridges are above surrounding seafloor because they consists of hotter less dense materials including magma also higher because the underlying lithosphere is thinner beneath ridges than beneath typical seafloor What happens at convergent boundaries the process of one plate sliding beneath another plate is subduction and the zone around the downward moving plate is a subduction zone continent continent convergent boundary continental collision Hot spot anomalously hot regions in the deep crust and upper mantle magma generated by a hot spot may solidify at depth or form a volcanic mountain on the ocean floor a hot spot makes a chain of volcanic islands and seamounts each created when it was over the hot spot hot spot forms a cluster of volcanic islands and seamounts instead of a linear chain