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Week One Lecture Notes

by: Joanna Notetaker

Week One Lecture Notes ASTR 101 002

Joanna Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton
Introduction to Astronomy
Jocelyn Read

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About this Document

Week one of lecture notes presented in Intro to Astronomy.
Introduction to Astronomy
Jocelyn Read
Class Notes
intro to astronomy Jocelyn Read Week one lecture notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joanna Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 101 002 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Jocelyn Read in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Astronomy in Science at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 09/13/15
Welcome to Intro to Astronomy Dr Jocelyn Read August 25 2015 What is Astronomy Natural science tries to understand explain and predict observations of the world Study of celestial objects outside Earth s atmosphere 6 g sun moon stars planets galaxies Devoted to an understanding of the universe and our place in it Course Goals Understand the nature of science through the eyes of astronomy See the big picture of our universe Develop a lifelong interest in astronomy and its current events Lectures Include inclass exercises for participation and writing credit 0 Not announced ahead of time 0 Lowest score will be dropped Slides will be posted online following class InClass Credit Grading will include participation and writing credit Some responses will be graded only for completion Participation Some will be assessed for written content structure and mechanics Writing 0 Some may need to be typed online after class Lowest score in each category will be dropped Exams Four exams including final exam period Dates given in syllabus No makeup exams Lowest midterm score will be dropped Final exam is mandatory Extra Credit Opportunities throughout semester Include telescope observing nights For each extra participation activity one point Will be added to participation score Not required to earn an A Inclass participation 10 Writing 5 Homework 15 Midterm exams 40 Final Exam 30 Final grade is not curved Why Study Astronomy Dr Jocelyn Read August 25 2015 Why Study Astronomy What gives us days seasons and years What are the stars we see at night What is the nature of the universe Are we alone How do we know these things Astronomy Often considered oldest science Individual stars seen at night are all in Milky Way Galaxy Other galaxies visible as bright patches made of billions of distant stars Taken humans to space Scientific Thinking Gather information about the universe through observations and experiments Organize gathered information Develop theories to explain and predict observations Test theories with further observations Lecture 1 Welcome to the Universe Dr Jocelyn Read August 25 2015 Assignments Read section 1 p 114 Our Place in the Universe 1 Introduction to MasteringAstronomy due Tuesday How Big is the Universe Consider a scale model in which the moon is 2000 miles 3500 km high 0 Earth 13000 km across 13x104 0 Moon 380000 km away 38x105 0 Sun 1400000 km across 14x106 150000000 km away 15x108 What is our Cosmic Address Earth Solar System Solar Interstellar Neighborhood many of the brightest stars we see are nearby Milky Way Galaxy contains all individual stars seen in sky Local Galactic Group some nearby galaxies can be seen by eye Virgo Supercluster Local Superclusters Observable Universe The Universe is Huge One Astronomical Unit the average distance from the Earth to the Sun 14x1011 meters Light travels at 3x108 meters per second fastest possible speed One light year is the distance light travels in a year 9x1015 meters Moon is 380000 km away or 12 light seconds Sun is 150000000 km away or 8 light minutes Nearest star 42 light years away Distance across Milky Way 100000 light years Distance to nearest galaxy 2500000 light years Millions of galaxies catalogued Number of stars in universe today approximately equals the number of grains of sand on all Earth s beaches The Night Sky Dr Jocelyn Read August 27 2015 Assignments Reading from Tuesday pg 1114 Today s reading pg 2730 Intro to MasteringAstronomy due Monday 0 Includes math review 0 Graded on completion only The Night Sky Stars in our galaxy are moving at hundreds of kilometerssecond Cannot see their movement in our lifetimes too far away Stars appear in fixed patterns on the sky Changes only seen after tens of thousands of years Humans find images and tell stories about these patterns Modern Astronomy uses constellations to name sky s regions Constellation stars appear sidebyside but can be vastly different distances from Earth Stars are different sizes and distances from us but all very far away All stars appear as points in the sky except for the Sun closest star How do we know how far away things are Depth perception different views from different eyes Known size scaling Atmospheric perspective However none of these methods work for stars Stars appear to lie on dome overhead 0 Optical illusion o Humans lack depth perception for such a great distance Ancient Greeks concluded stars were fixed on Celestial Sphere surface The Celestial Sphere Scientific model Not accurate but useful in discussing star position and motion Only half the celestial sphere visible 0 Above our horizon o Called our local sky General positions include Zenith directly overhead high low on horizon and horizon Cardinal directions N E S W located on observer s horizon Latitude At a given latitude the celestial pole is that latitude angle above horizon In Northern hemisphere North Celestial pole is visible In Southern hemisphere South Celestial pole is visible Daily Motion of Stars In Celestial Sphere model Earth is fixed and Celestial Sphere rotates around polar axis Fixed patterns of stars move together Circumpolar stars stars that never set depending on latitude


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