Beginning of Osteology lecture!!
Beginning of Osteology lecture!! ANTH 0630
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Ariza on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 0630 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Alicia Grosso in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Forensic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
VVVV VVVVV VVV VVVV Week 2 Osteology Basics Forensic Anthropologist and bones 0 Profile osteobiography 0 Identify patterns signs of abuse etc 0 PMI when did this person die May consult an entomologist 0 Help with positive ID Osteology osteo bone logos study of 0 Development how they grow and develop 0 Structure 0 Function why do we have these bones O Degeneration reaching adulthood 0 Identification Our Osteological Goals Recognize and identify bones Basic features of bones Vocabulary of bonesl Being able to talk to medical examiner using the same lingo Osteobiography and techniques to develop profile ancestry sex age etc Skeleton Function Support Movement Factory of blood cells Storehouse of nutrients Protection Anatomical Position The correct anatomical position is with the palms and toes facing forward 0 The bones don t cross this way Planes of the Body Sagittal mid sagittal split from top to bottom leaving a left and a right side Coronalfrontal split down the middle leaving a front and a back Transverse split sideways leaving an upper and a lower part Directional Terms Medial v lateral Anterior v posterior or ventral v dorsal Ventral is tummy side and dorsal is back Superior v inferior Proximal v distal Skeletal Integrity gt Articulated Pretty much laid out Bones are mostly in order gt Disarticulated Bones mixed and are all over the place 0 Commingled more than one personskeleton Classi cation of Bones 206 gt Location 0 Cranial and post cranial 0 Axial and appendicular arms and legs gt Shape 0 Long bones I Have a shaft and two ends I Longer gt wider I Leverage I 7 paired major bones I Mini long bones 0 Flat bones I Offer protection I Very thin no production of bone marrow I Skull and scapula are examples 0 Short bones I Cube shaped I Equal dimension 0 Irregular bones I Odd complex I Vertebrae only gt Structure 0 Cortical bone I AKA Compact lamellar I Dense external I Vascularized nutrients pass through 0 Trabecular bone I AKA cancellous spongy I Lattice interior I Blood forming tissue I Mesh bony fibers I Skull diploe same as trabecular skull just gets special name 0 Woven secondary bone I Found in children or people with disease I Irregular and coarse I Healing or growing bone Bone Anatomy gt Macrostructure 0 Proximal and distal 0 Diaphysis shaft of the bone 0 Metaphysis line between the diaphysis and epiphysis gt quotquot refer to handouts online for pictures gt Microstructure What is bone 0 Organic 35 I Water and collage I Long elastic protein fibers I Flexibility 0 Mineral 65 I Hydroxyapatite Bone Cells gt Osteoblast bone builder Excretes osteoids Last about six months gt Osteocytes mature bone cells that make up most of the bone 0 Maintain and nourish the bones 0 Years life span gt Osteoclast bone destroyer resorb Life span of 2 weeks gt Cortical bone 0 Sharpey s fibers makes ripping the periosteum really hard 0 Nutrient foramen O Periosteum gt Osteons have Harvesian system 0 Osteons are a bone unit 0 Harvesiann canals up and down 0 Volkmann s canals left and right gt Osteocyte located in lacunae 0 All of these are connected by canaliculi 0 Located in concentric lamellae gt Bone origin osteogenesis O Intramembranous ossification I Line on top of skull is a prime ossification center This eventually radiates bones 0 Endochondral ossification of cartilage prototypes I IN UTERO I Clavicle is the earliest identifiable bone I Blood vessels penetrate Which allows blood vessels to enter and nourish the bone begin bone growth I AFTER BIRTH I There s a secondary ossification center at the end of bones All connected through JOINTS 0 2 bones 0 Movement allowed by joints 0 Leverage move different ways 0 Why study joints They tell us the wear and tear of the individual 0 Was the person very active during their lifetime How they work Connective tissue 0 Tendon muscle to bone Good for movement 0 Ligament Connects bone to bone Good for strength Joint Types Fibrous I Immovable I Ligament I Between skull bones I These joints we call sutures lines on the skull or gomphosis in between the teeth Cartilaginous O Slight movement 0 Shock absorber on vertebral disks 0 Rib sternum Synovial joints are free moving Cartilage plus synovial uid cusion O Pivot I Moves on the spot I Example head and body 0 Ball and socket I Example is the shoulder and hip joint 0 Hinge I Moves in one direction I Knee joint and elbows O Condyloidconvex I Gliding motion I Example are wrist and ankle area 0 Saddleconcave I Thumb joint 0 Gliding I Moves up and down I ankle