PSY 303, Week 4/5 Notes
PSY 303, Week 4/5 Notes PSY 303
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Razan Alkhazaleh on Monday March 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 303 at Pace University taught by Robert Rahni in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 03/07/16
The self: adolescents seek to know who they are/what makes them different, and where they’re going in • life • real or imagined, developing sense of self is a motivator for adolescents • social cognitive construction: deeper sense of self from environmental exposure— but also derived from within • self understanding: cognitive representation of the self • can vary across different relationships and social roles • adolescents might create different selves depending on their ethnic and cultural background and experienced • self esteem: global/hollistic evaluation** (susan harter— “the self perception proﬁle for adolescents) self concept:domain-speciﬁc evaluations of the self • • self esteem reﬂects perceptions that do not always match reality • narcissism: self centered/self concerned approach towards others • narcissistic adolescents are more aggressive than non narcissistic adolescents, ONLYWHEN SHAMED* • lack of awareness to anything besides oneself contributes to adjustment problems • self esteem decreases when making the transition from elementary school to middle/junior high • top dog phenomenon: “highest in middle school (8th grade) to lowest in high school (9th grade) • self esteem ﬂuctuates across the life span • current concern: emerging adults who grew up receiving empty priase, have inﬂated self esteem as a consequence school performance/self esteem are moderately correlated— and correlation does not suggest that high • self esteem produces better school performance • adolescents with higher self esteem have greater initiative— which can produce both positive or negative outcomes • domains linked to self esteem: • physical appearance is a powerful GLOBAL contributor to self esteem in adolescence • social contexts on self esteem— family, peers, and schools contribute to the development of an adolescents self esteem • peer judgements gain an increasing importance in adolescence • consequences of low self esteem: temporary but can develop into other problems like depression or delinquency unknown to whether depression leads to low self esteem or if low self esteem leads to depression • (chicken or the egg issue) • Identity: • role experimentation: natural part of identity formation • adolescents gradually realize that they will soon be responsible for themselves and their lives • vocational roles in late adolescence become central to identity development (especially in a highly technological society like the US) • Identity is a self portrait composed of: • vocational/career identity • political identity religious identity • • relationship identity • achievement/intellectual identity • sexual identity • cultural/ethnic identity • interests • personality • physical identity • contemporary thoughts on identity • suggest identity development is a lengthy process more gradual and less cataclysmic (less violent) • • The Four Statuses of Identity • Crisis: adolescent choosing among meaningful alternatives • Commitment: (resolution of crisis stage) personal investment in what an individual is going to do Identity Diffusion: no crisis/ no commitment • • Identity Foreclosure: experienced commitment, no crisis • Identity Moratorium: crisis/ no commitment • IdentityAchievement: undergone crisis, made commitment • parents are important ﬁgures in an adolescents development of identity • family atmosphere that promotes individuality and connectedness • without self discipline and planing, emerging adults are likely to drift and not follow any particular direction • developing a positive identity in emerging adulthood requires considerable self discipline and planning erikson argued that intimacy should develop after individuals are well on their way to establishing a • stable and successful identity • intimacy vs. isolation— having healthy relationships/friendships leads to intimacy, if not you end up pursuing isolation • emotional development • closely connected to self esteem • adolescence is time of emotional turmoil (instability in early adolescence— highs/lows occur more frequently/ mood swings) • moodiness is NORMAL during adolescence • however for some adolescents intensely negative emotions can reﬂect serious issues • emotional ﬂuctuations of early adolescence may be related to hormone levels • during this time they become more aware of their emotional cycles • most adolescents do not effectively manage their emotions • emotional competence: • being aware that the expression of emotions plays a major role in relationships • adaptively coping with negative emotions by using strategies to reduce intensity and duration of such emotional states • understanding inner emotional states do not have to correspond to outer expressions • being aware of emotional state without being overwhelmed by them being able to discern others’emotions • • personality development: • through self understanding individuals develop an integrated sense of self— leads to stability and change • Big 5 Factors of Personality: OCEAN • openness • conscientiousness • extraversion • agreeableness neuroticism • • temperament: behavioral style/ characteristic way of responding • Easy child: develops routine quickly, quick to accept experiences • Difﬁcult child: reacts negatively, slow to accept experiences • Slow to warm up: display low mood intensity, low activity level New classiﬁcations of temperament: • positive affect and approach: extraverson, and introversion • negative affect and approach: easily distressed, fruit and cry often— introversion and neuroticism • effortful control: self regulation Biological Inﬂuences on gender: • • puberty intensiﬁes sexual aspects of adolescents gender attitudes/behavior • “anatomy is destiny”— freud and erikson: argued that an individuals genitals inﬂuence their gender behavior. freud: gender/sexual behavior are unlearned and instinctual Karen Horney: critic of freud and erikson— that people have free choice in choosing their gender (she argued for culture over biology) • Social Inﬂuences: • psychological gender differences are due to social experiences • social role theory: gender difference result from the contrasting roles of females and males parents, siblings, peers, teachers, mass media • • gender development is inﬂuences by: observation and imitation of others gender behavior, or rewards/ punishments for gender appropriate or inappropriate behavior Alice Eagly: proposed social role theory • Cognitive Inﬂuences: • gender schema theory: adolescents gradually develop gender schema of whats gender appropriate/ inappropriate in their culture • Gender Stereotyping great extent, still present in todays word • • male stereotypes are more rigid than female stereotypes WATCH: Miss Representation Cognitive similarities and differences: • no gender differences in intellectual ability, except in certain cognitive areas like verbal, math, and visuospatial